Vol 14 No 6 (2022)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 204 | views: 207 | pages: 770-777

    One of the most horrible diseases in history, Smallpox is caused by the Variola from Poxvirus family, has caused great morbidity and mortality along the way since it was eradicated in the 20th century. During and after the eradication program for Variola, other Poxviruses such as the Monkeypox (Mpox) virus, which causes a smallpox-like disease, became flagrant. With its long range of enzymes and proteins, poxviruses are effectively resisting hostile immune system attacks and disrupting cell signaling pathways. After Smallpox vaccination, cross-reaction immunity develops between Orthopoxviruses. Mpox is indeed an African endemic virus; however, increasing and emerging cases have been reported globally in recent years. According to Smallpox eradication in the 1970s and vaccination ceasing, nowadays centerpieces of the world population are vulnerable to Mpox virus. Our knowledge of Mpox is severely limited due to the lack of regular surveillance methods. Increasing education, boosting surveillance, and developing diagnostic competence is the most significant policies for improving identification, treatment, and restricting further virus spread. So Mpox can play a double-edge blade role in which without monitoring and increasing awareness it could be horrific and with public awareness and boosting surveillance it could be a paper tiger. This article reviewed previous reports about the Mpox merge from PubMed and google scholar from 2018 to June 2022.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 150 | views: 219 | pages: 778-791

    The ongoing 2022 multicountry monkeypox epidemic has drawn worldwide attention. Human monkeypox is a virus that spreads from animals to humans. It is an endemic disease in the rain forests of Central and West Africa. However, the disease recently emerged in India, and also in United States through imported wild rodents from Africa, even though the world is still struggling to escape from the clutches of the COVID-19 pandemic. Monkeypox is one of the contagious zoonotic diseases caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), transmitted to humans by direct contact with an infected person or animal or contact with virus-contaminated material. Its lesions are similar to smallpox in humans with various medical complications including flu-like symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and a characteristic rash. Public health experts around the world are very concerned about the rapid spread of the infection, which has intensified efforts to find the source and cause of this phenomenon. Several viral infections with epidemic potential threaten global health security. Early recognition of cases and timely intervention of potential transmission chains are necessary to contain further outbreaks. At this early stage of monkeypox outbreaks, the current review provides updated information on the current worldwide monkeypox outbreak status, disease aetiology, clinical presentation, therapy, and preventive measures worldwide. Our review will also provide useful information to health professionals and the general public.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 128 | views: 173 | pages: 792-801

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne parasitic diseases transmitted through the infected sand flies. Leishmania parasites are inoculated into the host skin along with sand fly saliva. The sand fly saliva consists of biologically active molecules with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Such properties help the parasite circumvent the host's immune responses. The salivary compounds support the survival and multiplication of the parasite and facilitate the disease progression. It is documented that frequent exposure to uninfected sand fly bites produces neutralizing antibodies against specific salivary proteins and further activates the cellular mechanisms to prevent the establishment of the disease. The immune responses due to sand fly saliva are highly specific and depend on the composition of the salivary molecules. Hence, thorough knowledge of these compounds in different sand fly species and information about their antigenicity are paramount to designing an effective vaccine. Herein, we review the composition of the sand fly saliva, immunomodulatory properties of some of its components, immune responses to its proteins, and potential vaccine candidates against leishmaniases.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 165 | views: 215 | pages: 802-812

    Background and Objectives: Legionella spp. is a causative agent of Legionnaires' disease that creates public health problems. Isolation of these bacteria from water sources is essential to identify outbreak origins and prevent disease. Diagnostic biosensors for water quality control to protect consumers from water-borne infections can predict many outbreaks. Gold nanoparticles conjugated probes are a new generation of diagnostic tools. In this study, an optical nano biosensor was designed and characterized to detect Legionella pneumophila in water samples rapidly.
    Materials and Methods: Thiolated probes designed for the mip gene were attached to gold nanoparticles and then water samples containing Legionella pneumophila were examined.
    Results: The limit of detection for PCR and biosensor was 104 and 103 copy numbers/µl, respectively. Biosensor sensitivity and PCR were reported to be 90% (18 out of 20) and 85% (17 out of 20), respectively. Specificity 100% has been reported for both methods.
    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, this method has the potential to diagnose L. pneumophila with high sensitivity and specificity. This system can be employed as a practical tool for rapid, accurate, high-sensitivity, and acceptable detection of Legionella pneumophila in contaminated water, which is cost-effective in terms of cost and time.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 102 | views: 147 | pages: 813-819

    Background and Objectives: The detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum is usually done through culture. With the change of the smallest effective factor in culture, we face the lack of growth of these bacteria, which is one of the important reasons to find a suitable alternative for the diagnosis of this bacterium. UreD is a protected gene in this bacterium. The aim of this was to evaluate the ability of antigenic regions of UreD protein to bind to patients' serum antibodies.
    Materials and Methods: Antigenic regions of UreD protein were predicted using IEDB software with five different methods: Emini Surface Accessibility Prediction, Kolaskar and Tongaonkar Antigenicity, Chou and Fasman beta turn prediction, Karplus and Schulz flexibility scale, Ellipro –Epitope prediction based upon structural protrusion. Antigenic regions of UreD gene was clonned, expressed and purified. The antigenicity of this recombinant protein against the antibodies in the serum of people infected with U. urealyticum infections was checked in western blotting.
    Results: The results showed that the antigenic regions of the UreD protein was producted and its antigenicity was demonstrated in western blotting. Moreover, all sera from patients infected with U. urealyticum reacted to the recombinant antigen.
    Conclusion: Specimens from people infected with U. urealyticum infection was positive in Western blotting suggesting that UreD protein has antigenic properties. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate for the design of diagnostic kits and U. urealyticum vaccine.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 127 | views: 182 | pages: 820-824

    Background and Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. Infection with C. trachomatis in pregnant women can result in maternal and fetal death, due to pelvic inflammatory disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this infection in pregnant women and identify circulating genotypes of C. trachomatis in Tehran, Iran.
    Materials and Methods: Endocervical swabs were obtained from 101 pregnant women and tested by PCR assay to detect cryptic plasmid gene. Positive isolates were analyzed for C. trachomatis genotypes through amplification and sequencing of the omp1 gene and alignment with deposited sequences in Gene Bank.
    Results: Infection with C. trachomatis was observed in 11 cases, yielding an overall prevalence of 10.8% in total. The majority of infected women were asymptomatic and the rate of infection was found more in women at the age of ≥30 years. However, no statistical association was found between C. trachomatis infection and risk factors in pregnant women. Analysis of isolated sequences revealed genotypes E (44.4%), D and F (both 22.2%), and K (11.2%) as main genotypes of C. trachomatis in this region.
    Conclusion: Results of this study showed the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections among pregnant women is relatively high. Identifying the precise rate of infection and associated genotypes in other regions is suggested.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 134 | views: 183 | pages: 825-831

    Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTI) account for major proportion of outpatient load and hospital admission globally. In most of the clinical microbiology laboratories MacConkey agar (MAC) and Cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient (CLED) agar are being used for identification of uropathogens. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of HiCromeTM UTI by comparing isolation rate and presumptive identification of uropathogens against CLED and MAC agar.
    Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of three months on 672 non-duplicate midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples. All samples were inoculated on to HiCromeTM UTI, CLED agar and MacConkey agar.
    Results: Among the 672 samples received for culture, 113 (16.8%) showed significant growth. Among the 672 samples, 95 (14.1%) showed growth of a single organism while 18 (2.7%) showed polymicrobial growth. The rate of isolation and presumptive identification of the isolates and polymicrobial growth was found significantly higher on HiCromeTM UTI Agar.
    Conclusion: HiCromeTM UTI Agar has the potential to streamline processing of samples for urine culture in a way that will reduce the workload for technicians, reduce turnaround time which in turn will benefit the laboratory ultimately leading to better patient care.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 152 | views: 220 | pages: 832-840

    Background and Objectives: Carbapenems are considered the last resort to treat several infections, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs). However, increasing carbapenem resistance is problematic because it leads to high morbidity and mortality rates. This study aimed to determine the rate of carbapenem resistance among Gram-negative bacteria collected from patients in ICUs and to identify their resistance mechanisms using phenotypic and genotypic methods.
    Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method among 180 Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Productions of carbapenemases, metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) and the harboring of carbapenemase-encoding genes, were detected in 40 selected carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB).
    Results: Of 40 selected CR-GNB isolates, 28 (70%), and 20 (50%) isolates were phenotypically positive for carbapenemase, and MBL production, respectively. Furthermore, 22 (55%) showed amplification of one or more of the carbapenemase-encoding genes, including blaNDM-1, blaVIM-2, and blaOXA-48. This study described the first emergence of NDM-1 producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Egyptian ICUs.
    Conclusion: High incidence of CR-GNB detected in the ICUs in our study area may be attributed to the overuse of antibiotics, including carbapenems, and improper application of infection control measures. These findings confirm the need for the application of a strict antibiotic stewardship program.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 124 | views: 192 | pages: 841-849

    Background and Objectives: Antibiotics-resistant Escherichia coli strains are considered one of the most important causes of human and animal infections worldwide. The aim of current study was to detect common resistance (carbapenems and quinolones) genes by PCR.
    Materials and Methods: A total of 100 E. coli strains isolated from human urinary tract infection and 20 isolated strains of aborted sheep embryos were collected. PCR was performed using specific primers to detect the resistance genes.
    Results: Overall, among the quinolones resistance genes, qnrS resistance gene had the highest frequency (48%) and among carbapenem resistance genes, imp resistance gene had the highest frequency (45%). The frequency of resistance genes, IMP (28.45%), KPC (9.5%), VIM (9.15%), NDM (7.20%) were observed in clinical and veterinary strains, respectively. According to the results, 38.6% of E. coli strains had at least one from five genes of resistance to quinolones. The lowest frequency of resistance gene was related to qnrA, which was observed in only 29 (24.2%) strains.
    Conclusion: Monitoring of carbapenem and quinolone resistance in pathogenic E. coli to humans and animals has an important value in revising treatment guidelines and the national public health, and plays an important role in preventing the spread of resistant strains.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 111 | views: 191 | pages: 850-862

    Background and Objectives: Dental caries is a breakdown of the teeth enamel due to harmful bacteria, lack of oral hygiene, and sugar consumption. The acid-producing bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries. Dextranase is an enzyme that can degrade dextran to low molecular weight fractions, which have many therapeutic and industrial applications. The purpose of the present study was to isolate a novel dextranase-producing bacteria from a source (molasses). The cell-free extracts containing dextranases were tested as antibiofilm agents.
    Materials and Methods: Dextranase-producing bacteria were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and enzymatic characterization.
    Results: The highest six dextranase-producing bacterial isolates were Bacillus species. The best conditions for dextranase productivity were obtained after 72 hours of culture time at pH 7. The addition of glucose to the medium enhanced the production of the enzymes. The cell-free extract of the six most active isolates showed remarkable activity against biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The highest inhibition activities reached 60% and 80% for Bacillus velezensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri, respectively.
    Conclusion: Therefore, our study added to the current dextranase-producing bacteria with potential as a source of dextranases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 105 | views: 179 | pages: 863-873

    Background and Objectives: In the past few years, application of new antimicrobial e.g. nanoparticles (NPs) to treat infection caused by drug-resistant bacteria has increased. This study aimed to determine antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in combination with linezolid on Enterococcus biofilm.
    Materials and Methods: A total of forty-eight isolates of Enterococcus spp. were collected and confirmed by PCR method. The synthesis of biocompatible AgNPs was performed, then analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We carried out minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and biofilm forming capacity of AgNPs and AuNPs with linezolid.
    Results: Twenty-two E. faecium isolates and twenty- six E. faecalis investigated in this study. Strong biofilm formation was seen in 12 (25%) of isolates, and others isolates (75%) formed moderate biofilm. AgNPs and Au-NPs size were 26 nm and 20 nm respectively. The MIC of AgNPs was 23.2 μg/ml, and AuNPs were 92.1 μg/ml and the lowest MIC was obtained 2 μg/ml in linezolid. Biofilm formation inhibitory activity by AuNPs + Linezolide and AgNPs + Linezolide 70 to 80 percent increased in average.
    Conclusion: The antibiofilm activity of AgNPs and AuNPs increased when both agents were used in combination with linezolid in comparison with each agent alone.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 117 | views: 2555 | pages: 874-880

    Background and Objectives: Few studies have considered potential benefits of probiotic bacteria and their derivatives on human and animal health. Nisin is an antimicrobial agent that is produced by lactobacilli and served as a preservative in foods. This study aims to investigate whether nisin suppresses or decreases the genes involved in the pathogenicity of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA).
    Materials and Methods: MSSA and MRSA strains were cultured at the ¼, ½, and 1 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin. Next, RNA extraction was performed at the mid-exponential stage of growth, and cDNA was synthesized. The expression of virulence factors was measured by qPCR, and the data were analyzed by the ΔΔCt formula.
    Results: Depending on the incubation times and the Lactobacillus species, the MIC of nisin on MRSA and MSSA observed in 800 and 1600 mg/l, respectively. The qPCR assay showed the expression level of the sea, agrA, and spa genes decreased and the level of the sae gene increased at the sub-MIC of nisin, and no antagonism was observed. Concerning MRSA, the maximum downregulation rate was observed in the sea gene (up to 5.9 folds) while in MSSA, the maximum downregulation rate was noticed in the agrA gene (up to 10 folds).
    Conclusion: Due to the high inhibitory effect of the sub-MIC of nisin on the expression of virulence factor genes in MRSA and MSSA, this compound could potentially reduce the virulence of S. aureus.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 119 | views: 141 | pages: 881-890

    Background and Objectives: Bioactive secondary metabolites are the products of microbial communities adapting to environmental challenges, which have yet remained anonymous. As a result of demands in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries, microbial metabolites should be investigated. The most substantial sources of secondary metabolites are Streptomyces strains and are potential candidates for bioactive compound production. So, we used genome mining and bioinformatics to predict the isolates secondary metabolites, biosynthesis, and potential pharmaceuticals.
    Materials and Methods: This is a bioinformatics part of our previous experimental research. Here, we aimed to inspect the underlying secondary metabolite properties of 20 phylogenetically diverse Streptomyces species of saline soil by a rationalized computational workflow by several software tools. We examined the Metabolites' cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects using the MTT assay and plate count technique, respectively.
    Results: Among Streptomyces species, three were selected for genome mining and predicted novel secondary metabolites and potential drug abilities. All 11 metabolites were cytotoxic to A549, but ectoine (p≤0.5) and geosmin (p≤0.001) significantly operated as an anti-cancer drug. Metabolites of oxytetracycline and phosphinothricin (p≤0.001), 4Z-annimycin and geosmin (p≤0.01), and ectoine (p≤0.5) revealed significant antibacterial activity.
    Conclusion: Of all the 11 compounds investigated, annimycin, geosmin, phosphinothricin, and ectoine had antimicrobial properties, but geosmin also showed very significant anti-cancer properties.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 84 | views: 127 | pages: 891-900

    Background and Objectives: Isolating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) from wastewater and culturing it using a conventional method has always been a controversial issue because the bacterium converts into a coccoid form when exposed to an unfavourable environment like wastewater. To clarify the cultivability behaviour of the bacterium in fresh wastewater samples, the effect of municipal wastewater dilation on the cultivation of the bacterium using a conventional method was examined.
    Materials and Methods: Several dilutions of wastewater samples were inoculated with fresh H. pylori suspension (with McFarland's dilution 0.5) to examine the dilution effect of wastewater on the bacterium isolation.
    Results: The H. pylori growth was found to be possible for a dilution factor from 1/106 to 1/107 of raw wastewater. In higher dilution factors the growth of fungi was dominant and could prevent the isolation of the bacterium.
    Conclusion: The optimized technique could be applied in future studies for increasing the chance of H. pylori isolation from fresh wastewater environments.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 94 | views: 158 | pages: 901-912

    Background and Objectives: Among the various factors involved in the development of gastric cancer (GC), infectious agents are one of the most important causative inducers. This study aimed to investigate the possible role of EBV gene expression on SHP1 methylation in co-infection with Helicobacter pylori in patients with GC.
    Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 150 patients with gastrointestinal disorders. The presence of the H. pylori and EBV genome were examined by PCR. The expression level of viral gene transcripts and methylation status of the SHP1 cellular gene was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and methyl-specific PCR.
    Results: EBV and H. pylori coinfection were reported in 5.6% of patients. The mean DNA viral load was significant in patients coinfected with cagA-positive H. pylori (P= 0.02). The expression of BZLF1 and EBER was associated with GC. Also, the expression level of BZLF1in GC tissues was significantly higher in coinfection (P = 0.01). SHP1 methylation frequency was higher in the GC group than in the control group (P = 0.04). The correlation between the methylation rate and the H. pylori infection was highly significant (P<0.0001). The strongest positive correlation was observed in GC specimens between SHP1 methylation and H. pylori cagA-positive strains (p= 0.003).
    Conclusion: Our results suggested that cagA might involve in the elevation of EBV lytic gene expression and SHP1 methylation, and the development of gastric cancer. Understanding the mechanism of EBV H. pylori - cagA + coinfection, as well as host epigenetic changes, can play an important role in diagnosing and preventing gastric cancer.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 88 | views: 156 | pages: 913-920

    Background and Objectives: Neutrophil / lymphocyte (NLR) and thrombocyte / lymphocyte ratios (TLR) are also a guiding factors in the prognostic evaluation of infectious diseases. Another parameter to determine inflammation and prognosis is albumin. This study was aimed to determine whether TLR, NLR and neutrophil / albumin ratios (NAR) are effective in predicting the severity and course of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).
    Materials and Methods: In this retrospective and cross-sectional study, a total of 1597 patients who were admitted to our hospital between 15.03.2020- 1.06.2020, diagnosed with COVID-19 were evaluated.
    Results: In the estimation of the decision for hospitalization, TLR, NLR and NAR AUROC values were 0.596, 0.634, 0.602 for cutoff values 123.7, 2.3 and 839.5, respectively. In predicting mortality, TLR, NLR and NAR AURO sample size can be specified C values were 0.674, 0.821, 0.787 for cutoff values 168.1, 5.2 and 1303.4, respectively (p <0.001 for all).
    Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that TLR, NLR and NAR are independent predictors in making the decision of hospitalization and in determining the prognosis in patients who are decided to be hospitalized.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 114 | views: 184 | pages: 921-927

    Background and Objectives: A great diversity of factors including viruses such as human herpes virus 1&2 (HHV-1&2), human herpes virus 5 (HHV-5), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) play key roles in sterility and it is worth noting that male infertility accounts for nearly 50% of barrenness, globally. In this regard, we evaluated the prevalence of the aforementioned viruses in semen specimens of two distinct groups of men referred to Novin Infertility Center in Mashhad, Iran.
    Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 semen samples were collected from 150 infertile and 150 fertile men. Subsequently, genomic DNA was extracted before performing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eventually, the results were analyzed via SPSS Statistics V.16.0.
    Results: Out of 300 specimens, 183 (61.1%) were positive at least for one of the forenamed viruses; genome detection of HHV-1&2, HHV-5, and HBV were 27%, 18%, 36.66%, and 4%, respectively.
    Conclusion: The current study found no correlation between infertility and HBV, HHV-5, and HHV-1&2, which may have to do with factors like sample size, the geographical distribution of the viruses, and the lifestyle (sexual behavior) of the participants. These results emphasize the implementation of such studies on a broader scale to determine the exact factors involved in infertility.

Case Report(s)