Articles

The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

Abstract

Background and Objective:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children.
Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.
Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn’t significant.
Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

Axelsson P, Nyström B, Lindhe J. The long-term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, car-ies and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 30 years of maintenance. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:749-757.

Matalon S, Weiss EI, Gorfil C, Noy D, Slutzky H. In vitro antibacterial evaluation of flowable restorative materials. Quintessence Int 2009;40:327-332.

Allaker RP, Douglas CW. Novel anti-microbial ther- apies for dental plaque-related diseases. Int J Antimi- crob Agents 2009;33:8-13.

Baradari AG, Khezri HD, Arabi S. Comparison of antibacterial effects of oral rinses chlorhexidine and herbal mouth wash in patients admitted to intensive care unit. Bratisl Lek Listy 2012;113:556-560.

Škrovánková S, Mišurcová L, Machů L. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common me- dicinal plants. Adv Food Nutr Res 2012;67:75-139.

Lixandru BE, Drăcea NO, Dragomirescu CC, Drăgulescu EC, Coldea IL, Anton L, et al. Antimicro- bial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol 2010;69:224-230.

Kianbakht S, Abasi B, Perham M, Hashem Dabaghian F. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a random- ized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2011;25:1849-1853.

Keshavarz M, Mostafaie A, Mansouri K, Bidmesh- kipour A, Motlagh HR, Parvaneh S. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis. Phy- tother Res 2010;24:1526-1531.

Rodrigues MR, Kanazawa LK, das Neves TL, da Sil- va CF, Horst H, Pizzolatti MG, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and isolat- ed compounds from the leaves of Salvia officinalis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2012 ;139:519-526.

Haffajee AD, Yaskell T, Socransky SS. Antimicrobial effectiveness of an herbal mouthrinse compared with an essential oil and a chlorhexidine mouthrinse. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139:606-611.

Bouajaj S, Benyamna A, Bouamama H, Romane A, Falconieri D, Piras A, et al. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Nat Prod Res 2013; 27:1673-6.

Russo P, Frustaci A, Del Bufalo A, Fini M, Cesario A.From traditional European medicine to discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Curr Med Chem 2013;20:976-983.

Samuels N, Grbic JT, Saffer AJ, Wexler ID, Williams RC. Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivi- tis model: a pilot study. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2012;33:204-6, 208-211.

Geuenich S, Goffinet C, Venzke S, Nolkemper S, Bau- mann I, Plinkert P, et al. Aqueous extracts from pep- permint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density. Retrovirology 2008 20;5:27.

Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Samojlik I, Jovin E. Anti- microbial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officina- lis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55(19):7879-7885.

Jebashree HS, Kingsley SJ, Sathish ES, Devapriya D.Antimicrobial activity of few medicinal plants against clinically isolated human cariogenic pathogens-an in vitro study. ISRN Dent 2011;2011:541421.

Jayashankar S, Panagoda GJ, Amaratunga EA, Perera K, Rajapakse PS. A randomised double-blind place- bo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal tooth- paste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med J 2011;56:5-9.

Nadir M, Rasheed M, Sherwani SK, Kazmi SU, Ah- mad VU. Chemical and antimicrobial studies on the essential oil from Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. Pak J Pharm Sci 2013;26:39-52.

Kamatou GP, Viljoen AM, Gono-Bwalya AB, van Zyl RL, van Vuuren SF, Lourens AC, et al. The in vitro pharmacological activities and a chemical investiga- tion of three South African Salvia species. J Ethno-pharmacol 2005 1;102:382-390.

Cross SE, Kreth J, Wali RP, Sullivan R, Shi W, Gimze- wski JK. Evaluation of bacteria-induced enamel de- mineralization using optical profilometry. Dent Mater 2009;25:1517-1526.

Horiuchi K, Shiota S, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Kuroda T, Tsuchiya T. Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:1147-1149.

Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods--a review. Int J Food Microbiol 2004 1;94:223-253.

Generalić I, Skroza D, Surjak J, Možina SS, Ljuben- kov I, Katalinić A, et al. Seasonal variations of pheno- lic compounds and biological properties in sage (Sal- via officinalis L.). Chem Biodivers 2012;9:441-457.

Axelsson P. The effect of a needs-related caries pre- ventive program in children and young adults - results after 20 years. BMC Oral Health 2006 15;6 Suppl 1:S7.

Kamma JJ, Diamanti-Kipioti A, Nakou M, Mitsis FJ.Profile of subgingival microbiota in children with mixed dentition. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2000;15:103-111.

Varoni E, Tarce M, Lodi G, Carrassi A. Chlorhexidine (CHX) in dentistry: state of the art. Minerva Stomatol 2012;61:399-419.

Files
IssueVol 7 No 3 (2015) QRcode
SectionArticles
Published2015-11-25
Keywords
anti-bacterial agents dental plaque Salvia officinalis Streptococcus mutans

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Beheshti-Rouy M, Azarsina M, Rezaie-Soufi L, Alikhani MY, Roshanaie G, Komaki S. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial. Iran J Microbiol. 7(3):173-177.