Original Article

Distribution of group a Rotavirus circulating in Mashhad, Iran


Background and Objectives: Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the most important causative agent of acute diarrheal disease in pediatrics 5 years and below. This study aimed to determine the distribution of circulating RVA in Mashhad, Iran to develop health improvement strategies and vaccine decision making.
Materials and Methods: A total of 106 fecal specimens were collected from children admitted to Akbar and Dr. Sheikh referral pediatric hospitals of Mashhad City during the December 2020 to March 2021 and December 2021 to March 2022. All specimens were tested for specific bacterial, parasitic, and amoebic infections. Negative samples were analyzed for RVA infections using the RT-PCR method.
Results: RVA was detected in 31.3% of the specimens, indicating no statistical significance in gender distribution or between fall and winter positivity rates. The number of RVA–positive specimens increased following age increasing in the range of 1 to 60 months.
Conclusion: Today, acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is still caused mostly by Rotavirus infections in pediatrics in Mashhad. Comprehensive studies are needed to determine the genetic diversity of circulating Rotavirus strains in this era.

1. Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, Lawn JE, Rudan I, Bassani DG, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: 1969-1987.
2. Estes MK, Kapikian A (2007). Rotaviruses. In: Fields Virology. Knipe D, Griffin D, Lamb R, Martin M, Roizman B, Straus S, Eds. Wolters Kluwer Health; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 1917-1974.
3. Organization WH. Ending preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025: WHO; 2013 [Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/10-04-2013-ending-preventable-deaths-from-pneumonia-and-diarrhoea-by-2025.
4. Azaran A, Makvandi M, Teimoori A, Ebrahimi S, Heydari F, Nikfar R. Distribution of rotavirus genotypes circulating in Ahvaz, Iran in 2016. Iran Biomed J 2018; 22: 107-116.
5. Greenberg HB, Estes MK. Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 1939-1951.
6. Asensio-Cob D, Rodríguez JM, Luque D. Rotavirus particle disassembly and assembly in vivo and in vitro. Viruses 2023; 15: 1750.
7. Johne R, Schilling-Loeffler K, Ulrich RG, Tausch SH. Whole genome sequence analysis of a prototype strain of the novel putative rotavirus species L. Viruses 2022; 14: 462.
8. Dung TT, Phat VV, Nga TV, My PV, Duy PT, Campbell JI, et al. The validation and utility of a quantitative one-step multiplex RT real-time PCR targeting rotavirus A and norovirus. J Virol Methods 2013; 187: 138-143.
9. Ahmadi E, Soleimanjahi H, Sadeghizadeh M, Teimoori A. Development of poly (A)-tailed universal reverse transcription PCR method for sequence-independent amplification of rearranged rotavirus. Arch Iran Med 2016; 19: 625-630.
10. Crawford SE, Ramani S, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Svensson L, Hagbom M, et al. Rotavirus infection. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017; 3: 17083.
11. Kudesia G, Wreghitt T. Clinical and diagnostic virology: Cambridge university press; 2009.
12. van Gaalen RD, van de Kassteele J, Hahné SJM, Bruijning-Verhagen P, Wallinga J. Determinants of rotavirus transmission: a lag nonlinear time Series analysis. Epidemiology 2017; 28: 503-513.
13. Monavari SHR, Hadifar S, Mostafaei S, Miri A, Keshavarz M, Babaei F, et al. Epidemiology of rotavirus in the Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Infect Dis 2017; 9: 66-72.
14. Troeger C, Khalil IA, Rao PC, Cao S, Blacker BF, Ahmed T, et al. Rotavirus vaccination and the global burden of rotavirus diarrhea among children younger than 5 years. JAMA Pediatr 2018; 172: 958-965.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Rotavirus surveillance--worldwide, 2001-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57: 1255-1257.
16. Niendorf S, Ebner W, Marques AM, Bierbaum S, Babikir R, Huzly D, et al. Rotavirus outbreak among adults in a university hospital in Germany. J Clin Virol 2020; 129: 104532.
17. Azaran A, Makvandi M, Samarbafzadeh A, Neisi N, Hoseinzadeh M, Rasti M, et al. Study on Rotavirus infection and its genotyping in children below 5 years in south west iran. Iran J Pediatr 2016; 26(2): e2080.
18. Teimoori A, Soleimanjahi H, Makvandi M. Characterization and transferring of human rotavirus double-layered particles in MA104 cells. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014; 7(6): e10375.
19. Jalilian S, Teimoori A, Makvandi M. In silico characterization of epitopes from human rotavirus VP7 genotype G9 design for vaccine development. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019; 18: 664-670.
20. Jalilvand S, Roohvand F, Arashkia A, Shoja Z. Update on epidemiology and circulating genotypes of rotavirus in Iranian children with severe diarrhea: 1986-2015. Int J Travel Med Glob Health 2018; 6: 7-10.
21. Mousavi Jarrahi Y, Zahraei SM, Sadigh N, Esmaeelpoor Langeroudy K, Khodadost M, Ranjbaran M, et al. The cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Iran. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016; 12: 794-800.
22. Javanbakht M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Yaghoubi M, Esteghamati A, Ghanaie RM, Mahmoudi S, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Iran. Vaccine 2015; 33 Suppl 1: A192-200.
23. Shakerian S, Moradi Lakeh M, Esteghamati A, Zahraei M, Yaghoubi M. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination for under-five children in Iran. Iran J Pediatr 2015; 25(4): e2766.
24. Shoja Z, Jalilvand S, Mokhtari-Azad T, Nategh R. Epidemiology of cocirculating human rotaviruses in Iran. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013; 32(4): e178-181.
25. El-Ageery SM, Ali R, Abou El-Khier NT, Rakha SA, Zeid MS. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay, latex agglutination and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of rotavirus in children. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 2020; 7: 47-52.
26. Xu C, Fu J, Zhu Y. A narrative review of norovirus gastroenteritis: more global attention is needed. Int J Travel Med Glob Health 2016; 4: 101-106.
27. Tan EM, Cawcutt KA, Zomok CD, Go RS, Sia IG. Activity of nitazoxanide against viral gastroenteritis: a systematic review. Int J Travel Med Glob Health 2017; 5: 107-112.
28. Sadeghian A, Hamedi A, Sadeghian M, Sadeghian H. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 6 years referred to the Pediatric Emergency and Clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Acta Med Iran 2010; 48: 263-265.
29. Phan TG, Khamrin P, Quang TD, Dey SK, Takanashi S, Okitsu S, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of group A Rotavirus strains circulating among children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan. J Virol 2007; 81: 4645-4653.
30. Blutt SE, Miller AD, Salmon SL, Metzger DW, Conner ME. IgA is important for clearance and critical for protection from rotavirus infection. Mucosal Immunol 2012; 5: 712-719.
31. Ojobor CD, Olovo CV, Onah LO, Ike AC. Prevalence and associated factors to rotavirus infection in children less than 5 years in Enugu State, Nigeria. Virusdisease 2020; 31: 316-322.
32. Bonkoungou IJ, Sanou I, Bon F, Benon B, Coulibaly SO, Haukka K, et al. Epidemiology of Rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso. BMC Pediatr 2010; 10: 94.
33. Cardoso Dd, Soares CM, Dias e Souza MB, de Azevedo Mda S, Martins RM, Queiróz DA, et al. Epidemiological features of Rotavirus infection in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from 1986 to 2000. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2003; 98: 25-29.
34. Ndze VN, Akum AE, Kamga GH, Enjema LE, Esona MD, Banyai K, et al. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in Northern Cameroon. Pan Afr Med J 2012; 11: 73.
35. Tagbo B, Chukwubike C, Mwenda J, Seheri M, Armah G, Mphahlele J, et al. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in Enugu Nigeria: 2011 to 2016. World J Vaccines 2019; 9: 22-36.
36. Aminu M, Esona MD, Geyer A, Steele AD. Epidemiology of rotavirus and astrovirus infections in children in Northwestern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2008; 7: 168-174.
IssueVol 15 No 6 (2023) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v15i6.14160
Rotavirus; Children; Prevalence; Epidemiology; Diarrhea

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ketabi K, Meshkat Z, Soleimanjahi H, Teimoori A, Tanzadepanah H, Bakhshi F. Distribution of group a Rotavirus circulating in Mashhad, Iran. Iran J Microbiol. 2023;15(6):796-802.