Original Article

Detection of FOX-AmpC-β-lactamase gene and antibiogram of AmpC-beta-lactamase-producing pathogens isolated from chronic suppurative otitis media patients in Nigeria


Background and Objectives: AmpC-producing Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens are distributed worldwide, especially in clinical settings. This study aimed to determine the antibiogram and the type of AmpC-β-lactamase gene harboured by GNB pathogens implicated in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) cases.
Materials and Methods: Ear swab samples (300) collected from patients with active CSOM were analysed using standard microbiological techniques. Phenotypic and molecular detection of AmpC β-lactamase production was done by cefoxitin/cloxacillin double-disk synergy test and PCR respectively. Antibiogram was determined by disk diffusion technique.
Results: Among the GNB pathogens isolated from CSOM patients, P. aeruginosa was the most predominant (36.3%); followed by K. pneumoniae (22.3%), and E. coli (13.7%). Patients with active CSOM showed increased bacteria isolation rate from bilateral ear discharges than unilateral ear discharges. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were more prevalent among patients with duration of discharge >2 weeks; recording 9.0% and 20.3% respectively. AmpC β-lactamase producers accounted for 14.0%; they were highly resistant (60%-100%) to cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline, but very susceptible (70.4%-100%) to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and amikacin. Multiple antibiotic resistance indices of isolates ranged from 0.7-0.8. FOX-AmpC-β-lactamase gene was detected in 3.9% of the isolates.
Conclusion: The detection of AmpC β-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant GNB pathogens harbouring FOX-AmpC-β-lactamase gene among patients with CSOM infections in our study is a serious public health problem which needs urgent intervention.

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IssueVol 15 No 6 (2023) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v15i6.14139
AmpC-β-lactamase; Chronic suppurative otitis media; Gram-negative bacterial pathogens; FOX-AmpC gene; Multidrug resistance

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How to Cite
Amadi I, Catherine Nchedo O, Obaji A, Agbonifo M, Eze E, Stacy I, Benjamin M, Romanus I. Detection of FOX-AmpC-β-lactamase gene and antibiogram of AmpC-beta-lactamase-producing pathogens isolated from chronic suppurative otitis media patients in Nigeria. Iran J Microbiol. 2023;15(6):779-787.