Phosphate solubilization characteristics of efficient nitrogen fixing soil Azotobacter strains
Background and Objectives: Azotobacter is a diazotroph bacterium reported to possess various plant growth-promoting characteristics.The aim of this study was to isolate Azotobacter strains capable of fixing nitrogen and effectively hydrolyzing both organic and inorganic Pi compounds.
Materials and Methods: In this study, soil samples collected from a diverse range of slightly alkaline soil types were screened for Azotobacter isolates. The inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization potentials of twenty competent phosphate solubilizing Azotobacter isolates were assessed.Variations were noted in the solubilization potentials.
Result: Three isolates, identified as Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6, were able to fix atmospheric N2 effectively. The nitrogenase activity of these isolates ranged between 158.6 and 326.4 C2H4h(-1)vial(-1) (ethylene). Bacterial growth rates and phosphate solubilization activities were measured quantitatively under various environmental conditions. A close association was evident between phosphate solubilizing ability and growth rate as an indicator of active metabolism. All three phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were able to withstand temperature as high as 45°C, high concentration of NaCl (upto 5%) and a wide range of initial pH from 5 to 10 while hydrolyzing phosphate compounds actively.
Conclusion: Azotobacter vinelandii strains O2, O4 and O6 are superior candidates for biofertilizers that may result in the reduction of chemical nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers leading to increase crop production.
Hofman G, van Cleemput O ( 2004). Soil and Plant Nitrogen. 1 ed. IFA. Paris.
Rees DC, Akif Tezcan F, Haynes CA, Walton MY, Andrade S, Einsle O et al. Structural basis of biological nitrogen fixation. Phil Trans R Soc 2011; 363:971.
Richardson AE, Barea JM, McNeill AM, Prigent-Combaret C. Acquisition of phosphorus and nitrogen in the rhizosphere and plant growth promotion by microorganisms. Plant Soil 2009;321:305-339.
Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U, Khalid R, Ahmed I.Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann Microbiol 2010;60:579-598.
Burgmann H, Widmer F, Von Sigler W, Zeyer J. New molecular screening tools for analysis of free-living diazotrophs in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70:240-247.
Dixon R, Kahn D. Genetic regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2004; 2:621-
Halbleib CM, Ludden PW. Regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. The Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130:1081.
Raymond J, Siefert JL, Staples CR, Blankenship RE. The natural history of nitrogen fixation. Mol Biol Evol 2004; 21:541.
Rodriguez H, Fraga R. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 1999; 17:319-339.
Deubel A, Merbach W (2005). Influence of Microorganisms on Phosphorus Bioavailability in Soils Microorganisms in Soils: Roles in Genesis and Functions. A Varma, F Buscot. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 3 ed, pp. 177-191.
Mehta S, Nautiyal CS. An efficient method for qualitative screening of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Curr Microbiol 2001; 43:51-56.
Chung H, Park M, Madhaiyan M, Seshadri S, Song J, Cho H et al. Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biol Biochem 2005; 37:1970-1974.
Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA (2009). Role of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture. E Lichtfouse, M Navarrete, P Debaeke, S Vinronique, C Alberola. Springer Netherlands, pp. 551-570.
Perez E, Sulbaran M, Ball MM, Yarzabal LA. Isolation and characterization of mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria naturally colonizing a limonitic crust in the south-eastern Venezuelan region. Soil Biol Biochem 2007;39:2905-2914.
Sashidhar B, Podile AR. Mineral phosphate solubilization by rhizosphere bacteria and scope for manipulation of the direct oxidation pathway involving glucose dehydrogenase. J Appl Microbiol 2010; 109:1-12.
Garg SK, Bhatnagar A, Kalla A, Narula N. In vitro nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, survival and nutrient release by Azotobacter strains in an aquatic system. Bioresource Technology 2001; 80:101-109.
Fischer S, Fischer S, Magris S, Mori G.Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the rhizosphere of wheat. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007; 23:895-903.
Aquilanti L, Favilli F, Clementi F. A comparison of different strategies for isolation and preliminary identification of Azotobacter from soil samples. Soil Biol Biochem 2004; 36:1475-1483.
Staley J, Brenner D, Krieg N (2005).The Proteobacteria, Part B The Gammaproteobacteria. In: Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Ed, GM Garrity. Springer, 2nd ed, Michigan, pp. 384-402.
Sar bay GF. Growth and nitrogen fixation dynamic of Azotobacter chroococcum in nitrogen-free and omw containing medium [ Department of Food Engineering,The Middle East Technical University; 2003.
Tejera N, Lluch C, Martinez-Toledo MV, Gonzalez-Lopez J. Isolation and characterization of Azotobacter and Azospirillum strains from the sugarcane rhizosphere. Plant Soil 2005; 270:223-232.
Farajzadeh D, Yakhchali B, Aliasgharzad N, Sokhandan-Bashir N, Farajzadeh M. plant growth promoting characterization of indigenous Azotobacteria Isolated from Soils in Iran. Curr Microbiol 2012; 64:397-403.
Sabra W, Zeng AP, Lunsdorf H, Deckwer WD.Effect of oxygen on formation and structure of Azotobacter vinelandii alginate and its role in protecting nitrogenase. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66:4037.
Daiz-Barrera A, Soto E. Biotechnological uses of Azotobacter vinelandii: Current state, limits and prospects. Afr J Biotechnol 2010; 9:5240-5250.
Reid NM, Bowers TH, Lloyd-Jones G. Bacterial community composition of a wastewater treatment system reliant on N fixation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2008; 79:285-292.
Malboobi MA, Owlia P, Behbahani M, Sarokhani E, Moradi S, Yakhchali B et al. Solubilization of organic and inorganic phosphates by three highly efficient soil bacterial isolates. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2009; 25:1471-1477.
Kumar V, Narula N. Solubilization of inorganic phosphates and growth emergence of wheat as affected by Azotobacter chroococcum mutants. Biol Fertil Soils 1999; 28:301-305.
Hardy RWF, Holsten RD, Jackson EK, Burns RC. The acetylene-ethylene assay for N2 fixation: laboratory and field evaluation. Plant Physiology 1968; 43:1185.
Muthukumarasamy R, Revathi G, Lakshminarasimhan C. Influence of N fertilisation on the isolation of Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. from Indian sugarcane varieties. Biol Fertil Soils 1999;29:157-164.
Natheer SE, Muthukkaruppan S. Assessing the in vitro zinc solubilization potential and improving sugarcane growth by inoculating Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Ann Microbiol 2012; 62:435-441.
Ravikumar S, Kathiresan K, Ignatiammal S, Babu Selvam M, Shanthy S. Nitrogen-fixing Azotobacters from mangrove habitat and their utility as marine biofertilizers. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 2004; 312:5-17.
Methods for studing biological soil crusts.Methodology Paper of the 4th International Conference on IL TER East Asian and Pacific Region; 2001.
Rodelas B, Gonzalez-Lopez J, Pozo C, Salmeron V, Martinez-Toledo MV. Response of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to combined inoculation with Azotobacter and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae. Appl Soil Ecol 1999; 12:51-59.
Nosrati R, Owlia P, Saderi H, Olamaee M, Rasooli I, Akhavian Tehrani A. Correlation between nitrogen fixation rate and alginate productivity of an indigenous Azotobacter vinelandii from Iran . Iran J Microbiol 2012; 4:153-159.
Alikhani HA, Saleh-Rastin N, Antoun H.Phosphate solubilization activity of rhizobia native to Iranian soils. Plant Soil 2006; 287:35-41.
Islam M, Sharif D, Hossain M. A Comparative study of Azotobacter spp. from different soil samples. J Soil Nat 2008; 2:16-19.
Rajeswari K, Kasthuri M. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nif H gene isolated from marine source. Afr J Biotechnol 2009; 8:6850-6855.
Malboobi MA, Behbahani M, Madani H, Owlia P, Deljou A, Yakhchali B et al. Performance evaluation of potent phosphate solubilizing bacteria in potato rhizosphere. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009; 25:1479-1484.
|Issue||Vol 6 No 4 (2014)|
|Azotobacter Biofertilizer Nitrogen fixation Pisolubilizing|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|