The first report of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from a clinical sample in Iran
Background and Objectives: Vibrio fluvialis is a Gram-negative, bacillus-shaped, curved bacterium known as an emerging pathogen. There are reports of outbreaks caused by this bacterium worldwide. Iran, especially Qom province, is an endemic region for gastrointestinal diseases caused by Vibrio species. So, the aim was to isolate V. fluvialis from clinical and environmental samples.
Materials and Methods: During six months, 363 clinical and surface water samples were evaluated. The samples were cultured on specific media, and all incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Suspicious colonies were evaluated by Gram staining and biochemical tests. The BD Phoenix automated microbiology system was used for the final confirmation of the isolated bacteria. Evaluation of antibiotic resistance of isolated strains was also performed according to CLSI standard.
Results: Eight cases (2.2%) of V. fluvialis, including seven from surface water samples (87.5%) and one from clinical samples (12.5%), were isolated. Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all V. fluvialis isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and chloramphenicol. High-level resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate was also observed. V. fluvialis-infected patient had a mild fever, watery diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps that were manifested after drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated vegetables. The patient's symptoms recovered without antibiotic therapy after four days, resulting in self-limiting disease.
Conclusion: The current study is the first human case of V. fluvialis infection isolated in Iran. Therefore, monitoring of water and food samples should be done routinely.
2. Zhu S, Kojima S, Homma M. Structure, gene regulation and environmental response of flagella in Vibrio. Front Microbiol 2013; 4: 410.
3. Deen J, Mengel MA, Clemens JD. Epidemiology of cholera. Vaccine 2020; 38 Suppl 1: A31-A40.
4. Okoh AI, Sibanda T, Nongogo V, Adefisoye M, Olayemi OO, Nontongana N. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015; 22: 2008-2017.
5. Saberpour M, Najar-Peeraye S, Shams S, Bakhshi B. Effects of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with mesenchymal stem cell conditioned media on gene expression in Vibrio cholerae and Caco-2 cells. Sci Rep 2022; 12: 9781.
6. Baker-Austin C, Oliver JD, Alam M, Ali A, Waldor MK, Qadri F, et al. Vibrio spp. infections. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018; 4: 8.
7. Ramamurthy T, Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Shinoda S. Vibrio fluvialis: an emerging human pathogen. Front Microbiol 2014; 5: 91.
8. Chowdhury G, Sarkar A, Pazhani GP, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharya MK, Ramamurthy T. An outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis caused by dual pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden and Vibrio fluvialis in Kolkata, India. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013; 10: 904-906.
9. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2021. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 31st ed. CLSI supplement M100. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. USA.
10. Igbinosa EO, Okoh AI. Vibrio fluvialis: an unusual enteric pathogen of increasing public health concern. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010; 7: 3628-3643.
11. Yousefi A, Vaez H, Sahebkar A, Khademi F. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae in Iran. Ann Ig 2019; 31: 279-290.
12. Kahler AM, Haley BJ, Chen A, Mull BJ, Tarr CL, Turnsek M, et al. Environmental surveillance for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in surface waters of Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015; 92: 118-125.
13. Onohuean H, Okoh AI, Nwodo UU. Antibiogram signatures of Vibrio species recovered from surface waters in South Western districts of Uganda: Implications for environmental pollution and infection control. Sci Total Environ 2022; 807: 150706.
14. Hosseini H, Cheraghali AM, Yalfani R, Razavilar V. Incidence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran. Food Control 2004;15:187-190.
15. Amalina NZ, Santha S, Zulperi D, Amal MNA, Yusof MT, Zamri-Saad M, et al. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profiling of Vibrio spp. isolated from cultured groupers in Peninsular Malaysia. BMC Microbiol 2019; 19: 251.
16. Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Dutta D, Guin S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, et al. Vibrio fluvialis in patients with diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18: 1868-1871.
17. Páll E, Niculae M, Brudașcă GF, Ravilov RK, Șandru CD, Cerbu C, et al. Assessment and antibiotic resistance profiling in Vibrio species isolated from wild birds captured in danube delta biosphere reserve, Romania. Antibiotics (Basel) 2021; 10: 333.
18. Ghorbanalizadgan M, Bakhshi B, Shams S, Najar-Peerayeh S. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from clinical specimens, Iran. Int Microbiol 2019; 22: 391-398.
19. Ahmed AM, Nakagawa T, Arakawa E, Ramamurthy T, Shinoda S, Shimamoto T. New aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene, aac (3)-Id, in a class 1 integron from a multiresistant strain of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from an infant aged 6 months. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53: 947-951.
20. Laganà P, Caruso G, Minutoli E, Zaccone R, Delia S. Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida strains isolated from Italian aquaculture farms. New Microbiol 2011; 34: 53-63.
21. Srinivasan VB, Virk RK, Kaundal A, Chakraborty R, Datta B, Ramamurthy T, et al. Mechanism of drug resistance in clonally related clinical isolates of Vibrio fluvialis isolated in Kolkata, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50: 2428-2432.
22. Topley WWC, Wilson SGS, Collier LH, Mahy BW, Ter Meulen V (2005). Topley & Wilson's microbiology and microbial infections. 10th ed. Hodder Arnold. ASM Press, London, New York, p. 1515.
|Issue||Vol 14 No 5 (2022)|
|Vibrio fluvialis; Gastroenteritis; Drug resistance; Microbial; Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|