Original Article

Subtype diversity and emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 in solapur district of Maharashtra, India


Background and Objectives: Even after four decades, HIV infection remains a global challenge and a leading cause of mortality in adults across the world. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that controls HIV viremia, is now available through public health facilities in India but drug resistance, which is likely to develop among these individuals remains poorly studied in India. The objectives of present study are to find out the HIV-1 virus subtypes, drug resistance mutations and HIV-1 drug resistance to NRTI, NNRTI and protease inhibitors in the Solapur district, India.
Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, forty two ART-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ count < 200 cells ml-1 and viral load (VL) > 3, 000 copies ml-1 were recruited. All patients belonged to Maharashtra State of India near Barshi Solapur and had been on ART treatment for over 5 years. EDTA whole blood from HIV-1-infected patients was centrifuged and the viral nucleic acid was purified from the plasma. Viral nucleic acid was amplified by PCR using protease and reverse transcriptase specific primers. The resulting amplicons were sequenced and studied for mutations. The tools from Stanford University website were used for subtyping of HIV-1 and identification of mutations conferring drug resistance.
Results: In present investigation, HIV-1 subtypes were subtype C in 37 (88.09%), subtype CRF01_AE in 2 (4.76%), and subtype A in 3 patients (7.14%). Drug resistance mutations of NRTI, NNRTI and protease were observed in 15 (37.71%) of 42 patients tested. Drug resistance for NRTI was observed in 12 (28.57%) and for NNRTI in 13 (30.95%) patients. No drug resistance was observed for protease inhibitors.
Conclusion: Considerable HIV-1 drug resistance exists among patients receiving ART from a rural areas of India, suggesting more studies from rural region are required to prevent development of resistance to ART.

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IssueVol 14 No 5 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v14i5.10969
HIV-1; Antiretroviral therapy; CD4 count; Viral load; Drug resistance

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How to Cite
Karad D, Tandon R, Arya A, Sonawane K, Chavan A, Kharat A. Subtype diversity and emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 in solapur district of Maharashtra, India. Iran J Microbiol. 2022;14(5):730-739.