Detection of bacterial agents causing prostate infection by culture and molecular methods from biopsy specimens
Background and Objectives: Prostatitis affects about 16% of men in their lifetime and sometimes leading to prostate cancer. Bacterial infections are the most common causes of prostatitis. Diagnosis of the causative agents of bacterial prostate infections plays an essential role in timely treating and preventing secondary complications. This study isolated bacterial infectious agents in patients’ surgical prostate and evaluated them by routine and molecular microbiological methods.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 72 prostate biopsy specimens were collected from the Orology Departmen of hospitals of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. All samples were cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antibiotic susceptibility test by Kirby-Bauer standard method was performed for all isolated bacteria. In addition, all isolated bacteria were identified using 16S rDNA PCR and sanger sequencing methods. Also, TaqMan real-time PCR was applied to detect Ureaplasm aurealyticum, Mycoplasma hominins, and Mycoplasma genitalium.
Results: In conventional culture method, out of 18 positive samples, 15 samples (83.3%) were Gram-negative bacteria and 3 samples (16.6%) were Gram-positive bacteria, containing Escherichia coli (55.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.1%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.1%), and Enterococcus faecalis (5.5%). The results of molecular identification methods were the same as conventional culture results. Also, four patients were Ureaplasm aurealyticum, and three patients were positive for Mycoplasma hominis.
Conclusion: Most bacteria isolated from prostate specimens belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were cocci isolated in the specimens too. Also, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis were identified in prostatitis.
2. Wallace KL, Landsteiner A, Bunner SH, Engel-Nitz NM, Luckenbaugh AN. Increasing prevalence of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a managed care population in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 2021;32:1365-1374.
3. Liu Y, Mikrani R, Xie D, Wazir J, Shrestha S, Ullah R, et al. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and prostate cancer: study of immune cells and cytokines. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2020;34:160-172.
4. Bozhedomov VA. [Chronic prostatitis: a new paradigm of treatment]. Urologiia 2016(3 Suppl 3):78-90.
5. Cicero AFG, Allkanjari O, Busetto GM, Cai T, Larganà G, Magri V, et al. Nutraceutical treatment and prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl 2019;91: 10.4081/aiua.2019.3.139.
6. Choto ET, Mduluza T, Sibanda EN, Mutapi F, Chimbari MJ. Possible association and co-existence of schistosome infection and prostate cancer: A systematic review. Afr J Reprod Health 2020;24:185-197.
7. Zhang ZC, Peng J. [UPOINT system: a new diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2013;19:579-582.
8. Dashdondov O, Wazir J, Sukhbaatar G, Mikrani R, Dorjsuren B, Aktar N, et al. Herbal nutraceutical treatment of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a literature review. Int Urol Nephrol 2021;53:1515-1528.
9. Benelli A, Hossain H, Pilatz A, Weidner W. Prostatitis and its Management. Eur Urol Suppl 2017;16:132-137.
10. Busetto GM, Giovannone R, Ferro M, Tricarico S, Del Giudice F, Matei DV, et al. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®). BMC Urol 2014;14:53.
11. Stamatiou K, Pierris N. Mounting resistance of uropathogens to antimicrobial agents: A retrospective study in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis relapse. Investig Clin Urol 2017;58:271-280.
12. Heras-Cañas V, Gutiérrez-Soto B, Serrano-García ML, Vázquez-Alonso F, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández J. Chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical and microbiological study of 332 cases. Med Clin (Barc) 2016;147:144-147.
13. Delcaru C, Podgoreanu P, Alexandru I, Popescu N, Măruţescu L, Bleotu C, et al. Antibiotic resistance and virulence phenotypes of recent bacterial strains isolated from urinary tract infections in elderly patients with prostatic disease. Pathogens 2017;6:22.
14. Olsson J, Drott JB, Laurantzon L, Laurantzon O, Bergh A, Elgh F. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model. PLoS One 2012;7(12):e51434.
15. Alexeyev O, Bergh J, Marklund I, Thellenberg-Karlsson C, Wiklund F, Grönberg H, et al. Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:1127-1133.
16. Eslami G, Goudarzi H, Baseri N, Ghalavand Z, Taherpour A, Zhaam H, et al. The prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium in patients with prostate cancer in Shohada Hospital in Tehran, Iran. NBM 2015;2:73-78.
|Issue||Vol 14 No 2 (2022)|
|Prostatitis; Pathogens; Enterobacteriaceae; 16s rDNA; Real-time polymerase chain reaction|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|