Original Article

Selective screening and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria for growth enhancement of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum


Background and Objectives: Plant Growth-promoting Bacteria (PGPB) can replace the dangerous chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The aim of this study was to isolate the PGPBs for Lycopersicon esculentum plant and to determine the appropriate volume for inoculation.
Materials and Methods: Plants samples were collected from tomato fields. Nitrogen fixing-PGPBs were isolated from rhizoplane and rhizosphere. Five isolates were screened based on their growth abilities and examined for PGPB traits including phosphate solubilization, and IAA, ammonia and HCN production. After high cell density cultivation, the cells were separated by centrifugation and freeze dried after resuspension in cryoprotectant. The powders were inoculated into sterile soil with a dose of 106, 107 and 108 CFUs/g. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seeds were sown in soil and after 42 days the shoot length was measured.
Results: Most of the potent PGPBs with high growth capacity were isolated from rhizoplane. Maximum phosphate solubilization was 289.7 µg/ml by NFB12 which isolated from rhizoplane. This strain produced the maximum level of IAA. NFB12 produced ammonia without the ability of production of HCN. This strain enhanced shoot length in dosed dependent manner. Surprisingly, inoculation of soil with 108 CFUs/g dramatically decreased the shoot length by 21%. Based on molecular approach NFB12 was identified as Bacillus megaterium.
Conclusion: Isolation of specific PGPBS is recommended for sustainable plant production. Our results showed that NBF12 improves tomato plant growth and its effect on tomato plant growth is does dependent. Maximum growth rate of tomato was observed with 107 CFUs/g soil inoculation of NFB12 while higher inoculation showed negative effect.

1. Tayoh LN, Kiyo M, Nkemnyi MF. Chemical fertilizer application and farmers perception on food safety in Buea, Cameroon. Agric Sci Res J 2017;6:287-295.
2. Mondal T, Datta JK, Mondal NK. Chemical fertilizer in conjunction with biofertilizer and vermicompost induced changes in morpho-physiological and bio-chemical traits of mustard crop. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 2017;16:135-144.
3. Singh M, Kumar A, Singh R, Pandey KD. Endophytic bacteria: a new source of bioactive compounds. 3 Biotech 2017;7:315.
4. Singh VK, Singh AK, Kumar A. Disease management of tomato through PGPB: current trends and future perspective. 3 Biotech 2017;7:255.
5. Kim M-J, Radhakrishnan R, Kang S-M, You Y-H, Jeong E-J, Kim J-G, et al. Plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 on crop plants and influence on physiological changes in soybean under soil salinity. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2017;23:571-580.
6. Tahir HA, Gu Q, Wu H, Raza W, Hanif A, Wu L, et al. Plant growth promotion by volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2. Front Microbiol 2017;8:171.
7. Sharafzadeh S. Effects of PGPR on growth and nutrients uptake of tomato. IJAET 2012;2:27-31.
8. Kumar A, Bahadur I, Maurya B, Raghuwanshi R, Meena V, Singh D, et al. Does a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance agricultural sustainability. J Pure Appl Microbiol 2015;9:715-724.
9. Masood S, Zhao XQ, Shen RF. Bacillus pumilus promotes the growth and nitrogen uptake of tomato plants under nitrogen fertilization. Sci Hortic 2020;272:109581.
10. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad E (2014). Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and physiological functions of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms: Springer. pp. 31-62.
11. Goswami D, Thakker JN, Dhandhukia PC. Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): A review. Cogent Food Agric 2016;2:1127500.
12. Zhao Y. Auxin biosynthesis and its role in plant development. Annu Rev Plant Biol 2010;61:49-64.
13. Celador-Lera L, Menéndez E, Flores-Félix JD, Mateos PF, Rivas R (2016). Analysis of the PGPB potential of bacterial endophytes associated with maize. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interaction: Springer. p. 23-35.
14. Don j. Brenner, Noel R. Krieg, James T. Staley (2005). The Proteobacteria. in: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. George M. Garrity, Sc. D. Springer Science & Business Media Publishing , New York. NY 10013, USA, pp. 7-1388.
15. Muangthong A, Youpensuk S, Rerkasem B. Isolation and characterisation of endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria in sugarcane. Trop Life Sci Res 2015;26:41-45.
16. Trujillo-Roldán MA, Valdez-Cruz NA, Gonzalez-Monterrubio CF, Acevedo-Sánchez EV, Martínez-Salinas C, García-Cabrera RI, et al. Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;97:9665-9674.
17. Hagan WA. The gins method of demonstrating capsules of bacteria. Science 1927;66:173.
18. Chaiharn M, Lumyong S. Screening and optimization of indole-3-acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization from rhizobacteria aimed at improving plant growth. Curr Microbiol 2011;62:173-181.
19. Sasirekha B, Shivakumar S. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 2012;12:863-873.
20. Shaikh S, Saraf M. Optimization of growth conditions for zinc solubilizing plant growth associated bacteria and fungi. J Adv Res Biotech 2017;2:9.
21. Lorck H. Production of hydrocyanic acid by bacteria. Physiol Plant 1948;1:142-146.
22. Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan MJMr. Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 2008;163:173-181.
23. Carrasco-Fernández J, Guerra M, Castro JF, Bustamante L, Barra-Bucarei L, Ceballos R, et al. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Juan Fernández archipelago improve germination rate of endangered plant Solanum fernandezianum Phil. Chil J Agric Res 2020;80:41-49.
24. Ramond J-B, Tshabuse F, Bopda CW, Cowan DA, Tuffin MI. Evidence of variability in the structure and recruitment of rhizospheric and endophytic bacterial communities associated with arable sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench). Plant Soil 2013;372:265-278.
25. Esitken A, Yildiz HE, Ercisli S, Donmez MF, Turan M, Gunes A. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) on yield, growth and nutrient contents of organically grown strawberry. Sci Hortic 2010;124:62-66.
26. Compant S, Clément C, Sessitsch A. Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo-and endosphere of plants: their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and prospects for utilization. Soil Biol. Biochem 2010;42:669-678.
27. Nautiyal CS. An efficient microbiological growth medium for screening phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1999;170:265-270.
28. Latif Khan A, Ahmed Halo B, Elyassi A, Ali S, Al-Hosni K, Hussain J, et al. Indole acetic acid and ACC deaminase from endophytic bacteria improves the growth of Solarium lycopersicum. Electron J Biotechnol 2016;21:58-64.
29. Saravanan D, Radhakrishnan M, Balagurunathan R. Isolation of plant growth promoting substance producing bacteria from Niligiri hills with special reference to phosphatase enzyme. J Chem Pharm Res 2016;8:698-703.
30. Wahyudi AT, Astuti RP, Widyawati A, Meryandini A, Nawangsih AA. Characterization of Bacillus sp. strains isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plants for their use as potential plant growth for promoting rhizobacteria. J Microbiol Antimicrob 2011;3:34-40.
31. Luna Martínez L, Martínez Peniche RA, Hernández Iturriaga M, Arvizu Medrano SM, Pacheco Aguilar JR. Caracterización de rizobacterias aisladas de tomate y su efecto en el crecimiento de tomate y pimiento. Rev Fitotec Mex 2013;36:63-69.
32. Cabra Cendales T, Rodríguez González CA, Villota Cuasquer CP, Tapasco Alzate OA, Hernández Rodriguez A. Bacillus effect on the germination and growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L). Acta biol Colomb 2017;22:37-44.
33. Mohite B. Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 2013;13:638-649.
34. Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan M. Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 2008;163:173-181.
35. Yadav J, Verma JP, Tiwari KN, editors. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seed germination and plant growth chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under in vitro conditions. Biol Forum 2010;2:15-18.
36. Joseph B, Ranjan Patra R, Lawrence R. Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria associated with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Int J Plant Prod 2007;1:141-152.
37. Agbodjato NA, Noumavo PA, Baba-Moussa F, Salami HA, Sina H, Sèzan A, et al. Characterization of potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) in central and Northern Benin (West Africa). Appl Environ Soil Sci 2015;2015:901656.
38. Samuel S, Muthukkaruppan S. Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi associated with rice, mangrove and effluent contaminated soil. Curr Bot 2011;2:22-25.
39. Kavamura VN, Santos SN, da Silva JL, Parma MM, Ávila LA, Visconti A, et al. Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought. Microbiol Res 2013;168:183-191.
40. Bargar JR, Tebo BM, Bergmann U, Webb SM, Glatzel P, Chiu VQ, et al. Biotic and abiotic products of Mn (II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1. Am Mineral 2005;90:143-154.
IssueVol 13 No 1 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v13i1.5502
Bacillus megaterium; Nitrogen-fixing bacteria; Indoleacetic acid; Lycopersicon esculentum

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Yavarian S, Jafari P, Akbari N, Feizabadi MM. Selective screening and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria for growth enhancement of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. Iran J Microbiol. 2021;13(1):121-129.