The antibacterial effect of Magnolia mouthwash on the levels of salivary Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Background and Objectives: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases around the world. Inhibitory effects of Magnolia Grandiflora bark extract has been proved on tooth decay both in vitro and by using free sugar chewing gum. This research aimed to examine the effect of Magnolia Grandiflora bark mouth-wash on the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.
Materials and Methods: This crossover, placebo-controlled, clinical trial study, was performed on a total of twenty participants (aged 18 to 35 years) in both control and intervention groups and four phases. The prevalence of S. mutans was measured in a certain volume of volunteer’s dental plaque at the beginning of the project (phase 1), after the first prescription (phase 2), following the washout period (phase 3) and finally after the second prescription (phase 4) by culture on bacteriology medium. Plaque index and saliva sampling were carried out in follow-up visits by a dentist. The data were analyzed using T-Test (paired and independent) quantitatively.
Results: There was a significant difference in S. mutans frequency in dental plaque between when the participants used Magnolia mouthwash and when they washed out or used a placebo (p<0.005). Results also showed a significant difference between Magnolia and Placebo groups in the mean count of saliva bacterial colony counts after oral administration in the first and second time (P<0.001 and P<0.004, respectively).
Conclusion: The current trial showed that Magnolia Grandiflora %0.3 mouthwash tends to decrease the number of S. mutans in dental plaque significantly. Therefore, its mass production and release to the oral health community are suggested. However, further studies with larger sample sizes and varying treatment are required to substantiate the findings of this study.
2. Kesim S, Unalan D, Esen C, Ozturk A. The relationship between periodontal disease severity and state-trait anxiety level. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62:1304-1308.
3. Kajiya M, Giro G, Taubman MA, Han X, Mayer MP, Kawai T. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease. J Oral Microbiol 2010;2: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5532.
4. Ge Y, Caufield P, Fisch G, Li Y. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis colonization correlated with caries experience in children. Caries Res 2008;42:444-448.
5. Durand R, Roufegarinejad A, Chandad F, Rompré PH, Voyer R, Michalowicz BS, et al. Dental caries are positively associated with periodontal disease severity. Clin Oral Investig 2019;23:3811-3819.
6. Mira A, Simon-Soro A, Curtis M. Role of microbial communities in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and caries. J Clin Periodontol 2017;44 Suppl 18:S23-S38.
7. Veitz-Keenan A, Ferraiolo DM, Keenan JR. Impact of asepsis technique on implant success. A review. Eur J Oral Implantol 2018;11 Suppl 1:S113-S121.
8. Tehrani MH, Asghari G, Hajiahmadi M. Comparing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes following green tea mouth rinse or sodium fluoride mouth rinse use in children (Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial). Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2011;8(Suppl 1):S58-63.
9. Radvar M, Moeintaghavi A, Tafaghodi M, Ghanbari H, Fatemi K, Mokhtari MR, et al. Clinical efficacy of an herbal mouth wash composed of Salix alba, Malva sylvestrais and Althaea officinalis in chronic periodontitis patients. J Herb Med 2016;6:24-27.
10. Campus G, Cagetti MG, Cocco F, Sale S, Sacco G, Strohmenger L, et al. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract on different variables related to caries and gingivitis: a randomized controlled intervention trial. Caries Res 2011;45:393-399.
11. Ferrazzano GF, Amato I, Ingenito A, Zarrelli A, Pinto G, Pollio A. Plant polyphenols and their anti-cariogenic properties: a review. Molecules 2011;16:1486-1507.
12. Greenberg M, Urnezis P, Tian M. Compressed mints and chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract are effective against bacteria responsible for oral malodor. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:9465-9469.
13. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically: approved standard. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA. 2006.
14. Roberson T, Heymann HO, Swift Jr EJ. Sturdevant's art and science of operative dentistry. Elsevier Health Sci 2006.
15. Newman MG, Takei H, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA (2011). Carranza's clinical periodontology. Elsevier health Sci.
16. Hsu K-L, Osgood R, Cutter G, Childers N. Variability of two plaque sampling methods in quantitation of Streptococcus mutans. Caries Res 2010;44:160-164.
17. Papaioannou W, Gizani S, Nassika M, Kontou E, Nakou M. Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to different types of brackets. Angle Orthod 2007;77:1090-1095.
18. Gamboa F, Estupiñan M, Galindo A. Presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and its relationship with dental caries: Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Univ Sci 2004;9:23-27.
19. Chavan SD, Shetty NL, Kanuri M. Comparative evaluation of garlic extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary Streptococcus mutans count-an in vitro study. Oral Health Prev Dent 2010;8:369-374.
20. Jain I, Jain P, Bisht D, Sharma A, Srivastava B, Gupta N. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of six Indian plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:ZC50-53.
21. Malvania EA, Sharma AS, Sheth SA, Rathod S, Chovatia NR, Kachwala MS. In Vitro analysis of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract activity on Streptococcus mutans in comparison to chlorhexidine and fluoride mouthwash. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20:1389-1394.
22. Choi N, Choi G, Min BS, Jang K, Choi Y, Kang M, et al. Effects of neolignans from the stem bark of Magnolia obovata on plant pathogenic fungi. J Appl Microbiol 2009;106:2057-2063.
23. Dani S, Prabhu A, Chaitra K, Desai N, Patil SR, Rajeev R. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study. Contemp Clin Dent 2016;7:529-534.
24. Bescos R, Ashworth A, Cutler C, Brookes ZL, Belfield L, Rodiles A, et al. Effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash on the oral microbiome. Sci Rep 2020;10:5254.
25. Liu J, Xiao J, Zhou J, Cai G, Li X, Lu J. Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Magnolia grandiflora in China. Plant Dis 2019;103:2672.
26. Babpour E, Angaji SA, Angaji SM. Antimicrobial effects of four medicinal plants on dental plaque. J Med Plant Res 2009;3:132-137.
27. Alkarimi HA, Watt RG, Pikhart H, Jawadi AH, Sheiham A, Tsakos G. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2012;12:706.
28. Mannaa A, Carlén A, Lingström P. Dental caries and associated factors in mothers and their preschool and school children—A cross-sectional study. J Dent Sci 2013;8:101-108.
|Issue||Vol 13 No 1 (2021)|
|Magnolia; Mouthwashes; Streptococcus mutans; Dental plaque; Clinical trial|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|