Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from abattoirs wastewater within Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
Background and Objectives: Waste water from abattoirs could harbour bacteria some of which are pathogenic. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the quality of wastewater from some abattoirs in Ilorin, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: The counts of viable bacteria, total coliform, faecal coliform, enterococci, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella/Shigella spp. of the wastewater was determined using selective media. The sanitary condition appraisal, antibiotic susceptibility test and plasmid profile of the isolates were assessed using standard methods.
Results: The highest count of viable bacteria and total coliform obtained were 9.0 × 107 and 3.0 × 107 CFU/ml respectively. Faecal coliform and enterococcal count had the same highest value of 3.0 × 105 CFU/ml. The highest count of pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp. were 2.5 × 108, 1.9 × 107 and 3.0 × 104 CFU/ml respectively. The abattoirs sanitary scores ranged from 28.6-57.1%. The isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranging from 0.5-1.0. Plasmid curing with 0.1 mg/ml of acridine orange solution led to reduction in the MAR index of most of the Gram negative bacteria. Pseudomonas stutzeri was susceptible to all the antibiotics while Proteus vulgaris was resistant to all the antibiotics after curing. Most of the Gram negative bacteria isolated belong to the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae while the Gram positive bacteria belong to the families Staphylococcaceae, Enterococcaceae and Streptococcaceae.
Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that wastewaters from the abattoirs were contaminated by bacteria with high MAR index. Most of these bacteria borne their antibiotic resistant factors in their plasmid.
2. Oloruntoba EO, Adebayo AM, Omokhodion FO. Sanitary conditions of abattoirs in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 2014; 43: 231-237.
3. Neboh HA, Ilusanya OA, Ezekoye CC, Orji FA. Assessment of Ijebu-Igbo Abattoir effluent and its impact on the ecology of the receiving soil and river. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2013; 7: 61-67.
4. Adeyemo OK, Ayodeji IO, Aiki-Raji CO. The water quality and the sanitary conditions in a major abattoir (Bodija) in Ibadan. Afr J Biomed Res 2002; 5: 51-55.
5. Nafarnda WD, Yaji A, Kubkomawa HI. Impact of abattoir waste on aquatic life: a case study of Yola abattoir. Glob J Pure Appl Sci 2006; 12: 31-33.
6. Odetokun IA, Ballhausen B, Adetunji VO, Ghali-Mohammed I, Adelowo MT, Adetunji SA, et al. Staphylococcus aureus in two municipal abattoirs in Nigeria: risk perception, spread and public health implications. Vet Microbiol 2018; 216:52-59.
7. Chern EC, Brenner K, Wymer L, Haugland RA. Influence of wastewater disinfection on densities of culturable faecal indicator bacteria and genetic markers. J Water Health 2014; 12: 410-417.
8. Salah EL-Din Mohammed W, Zaki DFA. Evaluation of antagonistic actinomycetes isolates as biocontrol agents against wastewater associated bacteria. Water Sci Technol 2019; 79: 2310-2317.
9. Omole DO, Longe EO. An assessment of the impact of abattoir effluents on river Illo, Ota, Nigeria. J Environ Sci Technol 2008; 1: 56-64.
10. Adebowale OO, Akinkuotu OA, Kehinde OO, Ojo EO, Akinduti PA, Kperegbeyi EA. The microbiological quality and some physical parameters of different water used at a municipal abattoir in Nigeria. Glob J Pure Appl Sci 2010; 16: 165-168.
11. Brtkova A, Filipova M, Drahovska H, Bujdakova H. Characterization of enterococci of animal and environmental origin using phenotypic methods and comparison with PCR based methods. Vet Med (Praha) 2010; 55: 97-105.
12. Banerjee S, Batabyal K, Joardar SN, Isore DP, Dey S, Samanta I, et al. Detection and characterization of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bovine subclinical mastitis in West Bengal, India. Vet World 2017; 10: 738-742.
13. Saito E, Yoshida N, Kawano J, Shimizu A, Igimi S. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from raw fish in relation to culture methods. J Vet Med Sci 2011; 73: 287-292.
14. Sobur MA, Sabuj AAM, Sarker R, Rahman AMMT, Kabir SML, Rahman MT. Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. associated with dairy cattle and farm environment having public health significance. Vet World 2019; 12:984-993.
15. Kootallur BN, Thangavelu CP, Mani M. Bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory: how much is enough? Indian J Med Microbiol 2011; 29: 336-340.
16. Movahedi MM, Nouri F, Tavakoli-Golpayyani A, Ataee L, Amani S, Taheri M. Antibacterial susceptibility pattern of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus after exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phone simulator. J Biomed Phys Eng 2019; 9: 637-646.
17. Osundiya OO, Oladele RO, Oduyebo OO. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) Indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos State university teaching hospital. African J Clin Exp Microbiol 2013; 14: 164-168.
18. Ojo SK, Sargin BO, Esumeh FI. Plasmid curing analysis of antibiotic resistance in beta-lactamase producing staphylococci from wounds and burns patients. Pak J Biol Sci 2014; 17: 130-133.
19. Ajadi BS, Adaramola MA, Adeniyi A, Abubakar MI. Effect of effluents discharge on public health in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. EJESM 2016; 9: 389-404.
20. Adebowale OO, Jayeola A, Adeyemo O, Kperegbeyi E. Potential bacterial zoonotic pathogens isolated from a major abattoir and its receiving surface water in Abeokuta, Nigeria. AJVS 2016; 50: 94-98.
21. Adeyemi OB, Afolabi OR, Akintokun RA, Isah OA, Sakariyau AO. Evaluation of medically important bacteria in selected abattoirs in Ilorin Kwara State. World J Medical Sci 2018; 15: 111-115.
22. Savin M, Biebaum G, Hammerl JA, Heinemann C, Parcina M, Sib E, et al. ESKAPE bacteria and extended spectrum -β-lactamase producing E. coli isolated from wastewater and process water from German poultry slaughterhouses. Appl Environ Microbiol 2020; 86(8):e02748-19.
23. Nafarnda WD, Ajayi IE, Shawulu JC, Kawe MS, Omeiza GK, Sani NA, et al. Bacteriological quality of abattoir efﬂuents discharged into water bodies in Abuja, Nigeria. ISRN Vet Sci 2012; 2012:515689.
24. Gerrard JG, McNevin S, Alfredson D, Forgan-Smith R, Fraser N. Photorabdus species: bioluminescent bacteria as human pathogen? Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9: 251-254.
25. da Silva WJ, Pilz-Junior HL, Heemann R. The great potential of entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus for mosquito control: a review. Parasit Vectors 2020; 13: 376.
26. Akpe AR, Okwu GI, Esumeh FI, Femi IJ. Screening for plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance bacteria in Ikpoba river water samples. Int J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018; 3: 31-35.
27. Vengadesh L, Kok-Gan C, Learn- Han L. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species. Front Microbiol 2015; 6: 735.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.