Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among HIV-infected patients
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) share the same rate of transmission. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals may result in faster progression of liver fibrosis and highly increase the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma development. Thus this study was conducted to determine co-infection of HCV genotypes in positive HIV patients in Ahvaz city, Iran.
Materials and Methods: The sera samples were collected from confirmed 78 infected HIV, 67 (85.89%) males and 11 (14.1%) females. All sera samples were tested for HCV Ab using ELISA test. The HCV Ab positive samples were tested for detection of 5' untranslated (UTR) and core regions of HCV genome using nested RT-PCR. The PCR products of 5UTR and core regions were sequenced to determine HCV genotypes.
Results: Among the 78 infected HIV, 25 (32.05%) cases including 20 (25.64%) males and 5 (6.41%) females were positive for HCV Ab (p=0.316). 53 (67.94%) of HIV patients were negative for HCV Ab. Among 25 positive HCV Ab, 19 (24.35%) cases including 15 (19.23%) males and 4 (5.12%) females were positive for HCV RNA (p=0.447). The PCR products of 5 positive samples were randomly sequenced. The results of sequences and alignments showed that the detected HCV genotypes were three 3a and two 1a. The occurrence of genotype HCV 1a was found in one male injecting drug user Injecting Drug User (IDU) and one female. The HCV 3a genotype was detected in the three males IDU.
Conclusion: The results of this survey indicated that 32.05% of HIV patients were positive for HCV Ab, among them 24.35% were positive HCV RNA. HCV genotype 3a was dominant and detected in the three males IDU. Regarding the consequences of HIV/HCV co-infection, it is suggested that HCV RNA detection should be regularly checked in individuals infected with HIV.
2. Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, Cozzolino A, Cacciapuoti C. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: An up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World J Gastroenterol 2016; 22: 7824-7840.
3. Wedemeyer H, Dore GJ, Ward JW. Estimates on HCV disease burden worldwide - filling the gaps. J Viral Hepat 2015; 22 Suppl 1:1-5.
4. Lonardo A, Ballestri S, Guaraldi G, Nascimbeni F, Romagnoli D, Zona S, et al. Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease - evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV. World J Gastroenterol 2016;22:9674-9693.
5. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 2436-2441.
6. Andalibalshohada A, Rezaii SA, Abedi F. HCV prevalence and predominant genotype in IV drug users. Rev Clin Med 2014; 1: 200-206.
7. Taherkhani R, Farshadpour F. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21: 10790-10810.
8. Ghaderi-Zefrehi H, Gholami-Fesharaki M, Sharafi H, Sadeghi F, Alavian SM. The Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in middle eastern countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepat Mon 2016; 16(9): e40357.
9. Hesamizadeh K, Sharafi H, Rezaee-Zavareh MS, Behnava B, Alavian SM. Next steps toward eradication of hepatitis C in the era of direct acting antivirals. Hepat Mon 2016; 16(4):e37089.
10. Mahmud S, Akbarzadeh V, Abu-Raddad LJ. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analyses. Sci Rep 2018; 8:150.
11. Dehghani-Dehej F, Sarvari J, Esghaei M, Hosseini SY, Garshasbi S, Kalantari S, et al. Presence of different hepatitis C virus genotypes in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of Iranian patients with HIV infection. J Med Virol 2018; 90:1343-1351.
12. Sagnelli E, Starace M, Minichini C, Pisaturo M, Macera M, Sagnelli C, et al. Resistance detection and re-treatment options in hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver diseases after DAA-treatment failure. Infection 2018;46:761-783.
14. Ghafari S, Memarnejadian A, Samarbaf-Zadeh A, Mostafavi E, Makvandi M, Salmanzadeh S, et al. Prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in recently infected, treatment-naive persons in the Southwest of Iran, 2014-2015. Arch Virol 2017; 162: 2737-2745.
15. Bokharaei-Salim F, Keyvani H, Esghaei M, Zare-Karizi S, Dermenaki-Farahani SS, Hesami-Zadeh K, et al. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Med Virol 2016;88:1960-1966.
16. Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, Charlotte F, Azria F, Coutellier A, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. Hepatology 1999;30:1054-1058.
17. Soto B, Sánchez-Quijano A, Rodrigo L, del Olmo JA, García-Bengoechea M, Hernández-Quero J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection modified the natural history of chronic parenterallyacquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1997;26:1-5.
18. Smith C, Sabin CA, Lundgren JD, Thiebaut R, Weber R, et al. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study. AIDS 2010; 24:1537-1548.
19. Margot N, Cox S, Das M, McCallister S, Miller MD, Callebaut C. Rare emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 treatment-naïve patients receiving elvitegravir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir alafenamide for 144 weeks. J Clin Virol 2018;103:37-42.
20. Parikh UM, McCormick K, van Zyl G, MellorsJW. Future technologies for monitoring HIV drug resistance and cure. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2017;12:182-189.
21. Murakami S, Takahashi Y, Yoshida S, Fuke I, Ohmae K, Mori C, et al. Highly sensitive detection of viral RNA genomes in blood specimens by an optimized reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol 1994;43:175-181.
22. Ohno O, Mizokami M, Wu RR, Saleh MG, Ohba K, Orito E, et al. New hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping system that allows for identification of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:201-207.
23. Kinkel H-T, Karmacharya D, Shakya J, Manandhar S, Panthi S, Karmacharya P, et al. Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C infections and an assessment of HCV-genotypes and two IL28B SNPs among people who inject drugs in three regions of Nepal. PLoS One 2015;10(8):e0134455.
24. Towe VL, ul Hasan S, Zafar ST, Sherman SG. Street life and drug risk behaviors associated with exchanging sex among male street children in Lahore, Pakistan. J Adolesc Health 2009;44:222-228.
25. Malekinejad M, Navadeh S, Lotfizadeh A, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Noroozi A. High hepatitis C virus prevalence among drug users in Iran: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence (2001–2012). Int J Infect Dis 2015; 40: 116-130.
26. Rossetti B, Bai F, Tavelli A, Galli M, Antinori A, Castelli F, et al. Evolution of the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in human immunodeficiency virusinfected patients in Italy between 1997 and 2015. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018; 24:422-427.
27. Robaeys G, Bielen R, Azar DG, Razavi H, Nevens F. Global genotype distribution of hepatitis C viral infection among people who inject drugs. J Hepatol 2016;65:1094-1103.
28. Alyssa Austria, George Y. Wu. Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review. J Clin Transl Hepatol 2018; 6: 155-160.
29. Bokharaei-Salim F, Keyvani H, Esghaei M, Zare-Karizi S, Dermenaki-Farahani SS, Hesami-Zadeh K, et al. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeﬁciency virus infection. J Med Virol 2016;88:1960-1966.
30. Mandorfer M, Schwabl P, Steiner S, Scheiner B, Chromy D, Bucsics T, et al. Interferon-free treatment with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir achieves sustained virologic response in 100% of HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients with advanced liver disease. AIDS 2016; 30: 1039-1047.
31. Rockstroh JK, Lacombe K, Viani RM, Orkin C, Wyles D, Luetkemeyer AF, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Patients Coinfected With Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: The EXPEDITION-2 Study. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 67:1010-1017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.