Original Article

Evaluation of hygienic conditions of food contact surfaces in a hospital kitchen in Morocco


Background and Objectives: Food in healthcare settings are complementary to medical treatment, hence it should be produced in good sanitary conditions. In fact, hospitalized and immune-compromised patients are more likely to have foodborne infections than the rest of the community. The aim of our study is to evaluate the microbiological quality of food contact surfaces in a hospital kitchen in Morocco.
Materials and Methods: A total of 238 samples was collected from kitchen surfaces and analyzed for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMC), Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus count and the presence of Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.
Results: The bacteriological analysis shows that the highest rates of compliance with good hygienic conditions were obtained in baking worktops (77%) and serving meal worktops (50%) and the vegetables cutting boards (45.83%). In contrary, some surfaces show a low level of compliance, such as the raw meat cutting boards (96%). The isolated bacteria were S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Serratia odorifera, Raoultela ornithiaolytica and Pseudomonas aeroguinosa.
Conclusion: The actual results indicate that the high levels of bacterial counts on kitchen surfaces, presents an evident need to improve the hygienic process and adopt an HACCP system in this facility.

1. Tokuç B, Ekuklu G, Berberoǧlu U, Bilge E, Dedeler H. Knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of food service staff regarding food hygiene in Edirne, Turkey. Food Control 2009; 20: 565-568.
2. Osaili TM, Obeidat BA, Hajeer WA, Al-Nabulsi AA. Food safety knowledge among food service staff in hospitals in Jordan. Food Control 2017; 78: 279-285.
3. Lund BM. Provision of microbiologically safe food for vulnerable people in hospitals, care homes and in the community. Food Control 2019; 96: 535-547.
4. Lee HK, Abdul Halim H, Thong KL, Chai LC. Assessment of food safety knowledge, attitude, self-reported practices, and microbiological hand hygiene of food handlers. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14: 55.
5. Garayoa R, Abundancia C, Díez-Leturia M, Vitas AI. Essential tools for food safety surveillance in catering services: On-site inspections and control of high risk cross-contamination surfaces. Food Control 2017; 75: 48-54.
6. Gounadaki AS, Skandamis PN, Drosinos EH, Nychas GJE. Microbial ecology of food contact surfaces and products of small-scale facilities producing traditional sausages. Food Microbiol 2008; 25: 313-323.
7. Tavakkoli H, Zabihi A, Khatibi SA, Nasiri T, Kaviani L, Dopeykar N. Status of prerequisite programs for the implementation of HACCP system in chain restaurants in Iran. Br Food J 2015; 117: 1753-1763.
8. Baghapour MA, Mazloomi SM, Azizi K, Sefidkar R. Microbiological quality of food contact surfaces in a hospital kitchen in Shiraz, Iran, 2014. J Health Sci Surveillance Sys 2015; 3: 128-132.
9. Benjelloun Touimi G, Bennani L, Berrada S, Bennani B. Évaluation des connaissances en pratique d’hygiène chez les manipulateurs d’aliments dans un centre hospitalier marocain. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2018; 66: S168-S169.
10. Kamaga BR, Tombe B, Troy P. Effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation of food contact surfaces in the PNG fish canning industry. Contemp PNG Stud 2012; 17: 68-82.
11. Cosby CM, Costello CA, Morris WC, Haughton B, Devereaux MJ, Harte F, et al. Microbiological analysis of food contact surfaces in child care centers. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008; 74: 6918-6922.
12. Da Vitória AG, de Souza Couto Oliveira J, de Faria CP, de São José JFB. Good practices and microbiological quality of food contact surfaces in public school kitchens. J Food Saf 2018; 38: e12486.
13. Fetsch A. Staphylococcus aureus. 1st Edition. Elsevier 2018, pp. 1-316.
14. Evancho GM, Sveum WH, Moberg LJ, Frank JF. Microbiological Monitoring of the Food Processing Environment. In: Compendium of Methods for The Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association 2001, pp. 1-995.
15. Losito P, Visciano P, Genualdo M, Satalino R, Migailo M, Ostuni A, et al. Evaluation of hygienic conditions of food contact surfaces in retail outlets: Six years of monitoring. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2017; 77: 67-71.
16. Sibanyoni JJ, Tabit FT. An assessment of the hygiene status and incidence of foodborne pathogens on food contact surfaces in the food preparation facilities of schools. Food Control 2019; 98: 94-99.
17. Garayoa R, Yánez N, Díez-Leturia M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Vitas AI. Evaluation of prerequisite programs implementation and hygiene practices at social food services through audits and microbiological surveillance. J Food Sci 2016; 81: M921-M927.
18. Petruzzelli A, Osimani A, Tavoletti S, Clementi F, Vetrano V, Di Lullo S, et al. Microbiological quality assessment of meals and work surfaces in a school-deferred catering system. Int J Hosp Manag 2018; 68: 105-114.
19. Tomasevic I, Kuzmanović J, Anđelković A, Saračević M, Stojanović MM, Djekic I. The effects of mandatory HACCP implementation on microbiological indicators of process hygiene in meat processing and retail establishments in Serbia. Meat Sci 2016; 114: 54-57.
20. Çetin Ö, Kahraman T, Büyükünal SK. Microbiological evaluation of food contact surfaces at red meat processing plants in Istanbul, Turkey. Ital J Anim Sci 2006; 5: 277-283.
21. Taulo S, Wetlesen A, Abrahamsen R, Kululanga G, Mkakosya R, Grimason A. Microbiological hazard identification and exposure assessment of food prepared and served in rural households of Lungwena, Malawi. Int J Food Microbiol 2008; 125: 111-116.
22. Dourou D, Beauchamp CS, Yoon Y, Geornaras I, Belk KE, Smith GC, et al. Attachment and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 at different temperatures, on various food-contact surfaces encountered in
beef processing. Int J Food Microbiol 2011; 149: 262-268.
23. Lani MN, Mohd Azmi MF, Roshita Ibrahim ZH. Microbiological quality of food contact surfaces at selected food premises of malaysian heritage food (‘Satar’) in Terengganu. Int J Eng Sci 2014; 3: 66-70.
24. Gkana EN, Doulgeraki AI, Nychas G-JE. Survival and transfer efficacy of mixed strain Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium from beef burgers to abiotic surfaces and determination of individual strain contribution. Meat Sci 2017; 130: 58-63.
25. Lee JS, Bae YM, Han A, Lee SY. Development of Congo red broth method for the detection of biofilm-forming or slime-producing Staphylococcus sp. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2016; 73: 707-714.
26. Uršič V, Tomič V, Košnik M. Effect of different incubation atmospheres on the production of biofilm in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) grown in nutrient-limited medium. Curr Microbiol 2008; 57: 386-390.
27. Sibanyoni JJ, Tabit FT. Assessing the food safety attitudes and awareness of managers of school feeding programmes in Mpumalanga, South Africa. J Community Health 2017; 42: 664-673.
IssueVol 11 No 6 (2019) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v11i6.2225
Hospital infection; Food contact surfaces; Hygiene; Food safety; Microbial profile

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Benjelloun Touimi G, Bennani L, Berrada S, Benboubker M, Bennani B. Evaluation of hygienic conditions of food contact surfaces in a hospital kitchen in Morocco. Iran J Microbiol. 2020;11(6):527-534.