Resistance pattern of Escherichia coli to levofloxacin in Iran: a narrative review
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are widely used in the treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli. FQs are broad spectrum antibiotics with high tissue penetration, and ease of use. Therefore, given the concerns existing about drug resistance, we aim to review the latest findings about resistance patterns to levofloxacin (LVX) along with other FQs in E. coli infections in different parts of Iran. Evidence shows that quinolones have been used in Iran for nearly 50 years, and that 0-65% of E. coli isolates show resistance to FQs. In the western parts of Iran, the highest rate of resistance to LVX (66.7%) has been reported among patients having urinary tract infections with E. coli isolates. Few studies and information exist on the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli to LVX in different geographical locations of Iran. However, the findings of various studies on this subject show that E. coli resistance to LVX is more in the western part of Iran than in central and southern regions, but it is similar among inpatients and outpatients. Therefore, it is reasonable advisable to limit the overuse, inappropriate prescription, and self-medication of LVX to prevent the induction of FQ-resistant strains. Accordingly, in order to obtain a clearer image of resistance to FQs, especially LVX in E. coli in Iran, more extensive investigations in different geographical locations and periods of time are required. In addition, antimicrobial stewardship would be helpful in this regard.
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