Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella spp. isolated from Iranian patients during 2016 to 2018
Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease with a high prevalence in both animals and humans. The present study was aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Brucella strains isolated from human clinical specimens against commonly used antimicrobial agents.
Materials and Methods: A total of 360 blood specimens were collected during 2016-2018 and subjected to culture and Brucella spp. identification. The classical biotyping for Brucella isolates was performed according to Alton and coworker's guidelines. Antimicrobials susceptibility test carried out using disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods.
Results: In this study, sixty B. melitensis strains were isolated from blood samples (16%) and all them belonged to biovar 1. Majority of the tested antibacterial agents, excepting ampicillin-sulbactam had an effective activity against B. melitensis isolates in E-test (MIC) and disk diffusion method. Moreover, probable resistance to rifampin and ampicillin-sulbactam were observed in 60 (100%), 1 (1.7%), 11 (18.4%) and 2 (3.4%) isolates, respectively.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics for brucellosis treatment should be regularly monitored. In conclusion, appropriate precaution should be exercised in the context of antibiotic administration to prevent future antibiotic resistance.
2. Azad ZM, Moravej H, Fasihi-Ramandi M, Masjedian F, Nazari R, Mirnejad R, et al. In vitro synergistic effects of a short cationic peptide and clinically used antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis. J Med Microbiol 2017;66:919-926.
3. Godfroid J, Scholz H, Barbier T, Nicolas C, Wattiau P, Fretin D, et al. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century. Prev Vet Med 2011;102:118-131.
4. Köhler S, Ouahrani-Bettache S, Winum J-Y. Brucella suis carbonic anhydrases and their inhibitors: Towards alternative antibiotics?. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017;32:683-687.
5. Ilhan Z, Solmaz H, Ekin IH. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates from sheep in an area endemic for human brucellosis in Turkey. J Vet Med Sci 2013; 75:1035-1040.
6. Celli J, de Chastellier C, Franchini D-M, Pizarro-Cerda J, Moreno E, Gorvel J-P. Brucella evades macrophage killing via VirB-dependent sustained interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum. J Exp Med 2003;198:545-556.
7. Lobet E, Willemart K, Ninane N, Demazy C, Sedzicki J, Lelubre C, et al. Mitochondrial fragmentation affects neither the sensitivity to TNFα-induced apoptosis of Brucella-infected cells nor the intracellular replication of the bacteria. Sci Rep 2018;8:5173.
8. Turkmani A, Ioannidis A, Christidou A, Psaroulaki A, Loukaides F, Tselentis Y. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2006;5:24.
9. Lucero N, Ayala S, Escobar G, Jacob N. Brucella isolated in humans and animals in Latin America from 1968 to 2006. Epidemiol Infect 2008;136:496-503.
10. Bodur H, Balaban N, Aksaray S, Yetener V, Akinci E, Çolpan A, et al. Biotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Brucella isolates. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:337-338.
11. Alton G, Jones L, Angus R, Verger J (1988). Techniques for the Brucellosis laboratory, 1st ed. Paris: Institut national de la recherche agronomique: Tech Doc.
12. Godfroid J, Garin-Bastuji B, Saegerman C, Blasco J. Brucellosis in terrestrial wildlife. Rev Sci Tech 2013; 32:27-42.
13. Abdel-Maksoud M, House B, Wasfy M, Abdel-Rahman B, Pimentel G, Roushdy G, et al. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2012;11:24.
14. Cooke R, Perrett L. Antimicrobial susceptibility data for Brucella melitensis isolates cultured from UK patients. J Infect 2014;68:401.
15. Pauletti RB, Stynen APR, da Silva Mol JP, Dorneles EMS, Alves TM, Souto MdSM, et al. Reduced susceptibility to Rifampicin and resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents among Brucella abortus isolates from cattle in Brazil. PLoS One 2015;10(7):e0132532.
16. Bayram Y, Korkoca H, Aypak C, Parlak M, Cikman A, Kilic S, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Brucella isolates from various clinical specimens. Int J Med Sci 2011;8:198-202.
17. Liu Z-g, Di D-d, Wang M, Liu R-h, Zhao H-y, Piao D-r, et al. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia, China. BMC Infect Dis 2018;18:43.
18. Lopez-Merino A, Contreras-Rodriguez A, Migranas-Ortiz R, Orrantia-Gradín R, Hernández-Oliva GM, Gutiérrez-Rubio ATY, et al. Susceptibility of Mexican brucella isolates to moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobials used in the treatment of human brucellosis. Scand J Infect Dis 2004;36:636-638.
19. Ilhan Z, Solmaz H, Ekin IH. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates from sheep in an area endemic for human brucellosis in Turkey. J Vet Med Sci 2013;75:1035-1040.
20. Abdollahiasl A, Kebriaeezadeh A, Nikfar S, Farshchi A, Ghiasi G, Abdollahi M. Patterns of antibiotic consumption in Iran during 2000–2009. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2011;37:489-490.
21. Gattringer K-B, Suchomel M, Eder M, Lassnigg AM, Graninger W, Presterl E. Time-dependent effects of rifampicin on staphylococcal biofilms. Int J Artif Organs 2010;33:621-626.
22. Godeau P, Fuchs G, Guillevin L, Philippon A, Tucat G, Cabane J, et al. Treatment of human brucellosis with rifampicin. Sem Hop 1984;60:5-9.
23. Hashim R, Ahmad N, Zahidi M, Tay B, Mohd Noor A, Zainal S, et al. Identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella species isolated from human brucellosis. Int J Microbiol 2014; 2014:596245.
24. Rahil AI, Othman M, Ibrahim W, Mohamed MY. Brucellosis in Qatar: a retrospective cohort study. Qatar Med J 2014: 2014:25-30.
25. Kinsara A, Al-Mowallad A, Osoba A. Increasing resistance of Brucellae to co-trimoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:1531.
26. Irajian GR, Jazi FM, Mirnejad R, Piranfar V. Species-specific PCR for the diagnosis and determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of brucella strains isolated from Tehran, Iran. Iran J Pathol 2016;11:238-247.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.