Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2009. 1(3):31-36.

An epidemiological survey on cattle ringworm in major dairy farms of Mashhad city, Eastern Iran
Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, F Mosleh-Tehrani, S Ranjbar-Bahadori, M Razzaghi-Abyaneh

Abstract


Background and Objectives: Cattle dermatophytosis (syn. cattle ringworm), an important skin infection, has received major consideration not only for economical losses in the animal breeding industry but also in regards to its zoonotic transmission to humans. For effective control measures, it is important to determine the disease prevalence in cattle herds.
Materials and Methods: To determine ringworm prevalence, a total number of 3,540 cattle in different age groups at three major farms of Mashhad including Kenebist (KB) in the east, Mazraeh Nemooneh (MN) in the south, and Moghoofat Malek (MM) in the north-east were examined. Skin scrapings were prepared from all animals clinically suspected to have dermato- phytosis. The samples were examined microscopically for fungal elements (hyphae and/or arthrospores) by adding potassium hydroxide (KOH) to samples. To isolate the etiologic dermatophytes, all samples were cultured on selective agar for patho- genic fungi medium for 4 weeks at room temperature.
Results: Among 684 suspected cases (19.3%) selected from a total number of 3,540 cattle based on clinical signs, 604 cases (88.3%) were KOH positive in direct microscopy, while 490 cases (71.6%) were culture positive on selective agar for patho- genic fungi (SAPF) medium. The most frequent dermatophyte isolated was Trichophyton verrucosum (495 isolates accounting for 99% of total isolates) which was obtained from all culture positive cases except five cases (1.0%) infected with another dermatophyte named Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Conclusion: This work is the first comprehensive study on cattle ringworm in Iran. With respect to the high prevalence of cattle ringworm, particularly in young animals reported in the present study, effective management programs such as vaccina- tion and improved hygiene are necessary for disease control in the herds.


Keywords


Dermatophytosis; Cattle; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kane J, Summerbell R, Sigler L, Krajden S, Land G (1997). Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, CA ,USA.

Weitzman I, Summerbell RC. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995; 8: 240-259.

Pier AC, Smith JMB, Alexiou H, Ellis DH, Lund A, Pritchard RC. Animal ringworm – its aetiology, public health significance and control. J Med Vet Mycol 1994;32: 133–150.

4. Stenwig H. Isolation of dermatophytes from domestic animals in Norway. Nord Vet Med 1985: 37: 161–169.

Oborilova E, Rybnikar A. Experimental dermatophytosis in calves caused by Trichophyton verrucosum culture. Mycoses 2005; 48: 187–191.

Wabacha JK, Gitau GK, Bebora LC, Bwanga CO, Wamuri ZN, Mbithi PM. Occurrence of dermatophytosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants. JS Afr Vet Assoc 1998; 69: 172–173.

Weber A. Mycozoonoses with special regard to ringworm of cattle. Mycoses 2000; 43: 20–22.

Pepin GA, Austwick PKC. II.–Skin disease, mycological origin. Vet Rec 1968; 82: 208–221.

Fadlelmula A, Agab H, Le Horgne JM, Abbas B, Abdalla AE. First isolation of Trichophyton verrucosum as the aetiology of ringworm in the Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). Rev d’élev Méd Vét Pays Trop 1994; 47: 184-187.

Roman C, Massai L, Gianni C, Crosti C. Case reports.Six cases of infection due to Trichophyton verrucosum.Mycoses 2001; 44: 334–337.

Maslen MM. Human cases of cattle ringworm due to Trichophyton verrucosum in Victoria, Australia. Australian J Dermatol 2000; 42: 1-4.

Ming PX, Ti YL, Bulmer GS. Outbreak of Trichophyton verrucosum in China transmitted from cows to humans. Mycopathologia 2006; 161: 225-228.

Bredahl L, Gyllensvaan C. Incidence and control of cattle ringworm in Scandinavia. Mycoses 2000; 43:8–10.

Rybnikar A, Vrzal V, Chumela L. Protection efficacy of vaccines against bovine dermatophytosis after double and single vaccination. Mycoses 1998; 41: 83–86.

Mahmoudabadi AZ. A study of dermatophytosis in South West of Iran. Mycopathologia 2005; 160: 21-24.

Chadeganipour M, Shadzi S, Dehghan P, Movahed M.Prevalence and etiology of dermatophytoses in Isfahan, Iran. Mycoses 1997; 40: 321-324.

Kazemi A. Tinea unguium in the north-west of Iran. Rev Iberoam Micol 2007; 24: 113-117.

Falahati M, Akhlaghi L, Lari AR, Alaghehbandan R.Epidemiology of dermatophytoses in an area south of Tehran, Iran. Mycopathologia 2003; 156: 279-287.

Rebell G, Taplin D. (1974) Dermatophytes: their recognition and identification. Revised edn. Coral Gables, University of Miami Press, Florida.

Larone DH (1995). Medically important fungi: a guide to identification,3rd edition, ASM Press, Washington DC.

Rippon JW (1988). Medical Mycology, the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes, 3rd edn., W.B.Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Peano A, Tizzani P, Gallo MG, Molinar Min A, Rambozzi L, Meneguz PG. Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton verrucosum in a chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Eur J Wildl Res 2008; 54: 153-156.

Khosravi AR, Mahmoudi M. Dermatophytes isolated from domestic animals in Iran. Mycoses 1994; 37 :43-48.

Mikaeeli A, Mostafaee A, Rahimi M, Ghashghaee A.The frequency of Trichophyton verrucosum in cattle dermatophytosis in Kermanshah township. Iran Vet J (In persian) 2009; 22: 64-69.

Kakepis E, Marcelou-Kindi U, Stratigos J. Bovine ringworm. An outbreak caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulare in Greece. Int J Dermatol 1986; 25: 580-583.

Moretti A, Boncio L, Pasquali P, Fioretti DP.Epidemiological aspects of dermatophyte infections in horses and cattle. Zentralbl Vererinärmed B 1998; 45:205-208.

Borman AM, Campbell CK, Fraser M, Johnson EM.Analysis of the dermatophyte species isolated in the British Isles between 1980 and 2005 and review of worldwide dermatophyte trends over the last three decades. Med Mycol 2007; 45: 131-141.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.