Effects of a multispecies synbiotic on intestinal mucosa immune responses
Background and Objectives: Probiotics and prebiotics are known to regulate immune responses. A synbiotic is a product that combines probiotics and prebiotics in a single dosage form. In this study, we attempt to present the effects of a multispecies synbiotic on intestinal mucosa immune responses after exposure to Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Materials and Methods: Totally 21 male Balb/c mice were randomly classified into two groups. The K-I group received LPS and a synbiotic, and the K-II group received LPS alone. The synbiotic was administered for 21 consecutive days, whereas LPS was administered once on the 15th day. Specifically, a synbiotic containing 1 × 109 colony forming units (CFUs) of the probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus PXN 35, L. casei subsp. casei PXN 37, L. rhamnosus PXN 54, L. bulgaricus PXN 39, Bifidobacterium breve PXN 25, B. infantis PXN 27 and Streptococcus thermophilus PXN 66 and the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide was administered through an orogastric tube. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels for humoral immune responses and CD4+ and CD8+ levels for cellular immune responses.
Results: An independent-samples t-test revealed significant increases of the numbers of IgA- (p = 0.027) and CD4-expressing cells (p = 0.009) but not the number of CD8-expressing cells in the K-I group compared with those in the K-II group.
Conclusion: The multispecies synbiotic had immunoregulatory effects on IgA and CD4 expression in LPS-exposed mice.
2. Isolauri E, Salminen S. Probiotics, gut inflammation and barrier function. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005; 34: 437-450.
3. Perdigón G, Vintiñi E, Alvarez S, Medina M, Medici M. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci 1999; 82: 1108-1114.
4. Isolauri E, Sütas Y, Kankaanpää P, Arvilommi H, Salminen S. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73(2 Suppl): 444S-450S.
5. Kaiserlian D, Cerf-Bensussan N, Hosmalin A. The mucosal immune system: from control of inflammation to protection against infections. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78: 311-318.
6. Azuma M. Fundamental mechanisms of host immune responses to infection. J Periodontal Res 2006; 41: 361-373.
7. Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. Toll-like receptors : critical proteinslinking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 675-680.
8. Madara J. Clinical implications of basic research. Building an Intestine—architectural contributions of commensal bacteria. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1685-1686.
9. Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Agüero G, Gobbato N. Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78:1597-1606.
10. Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt IM. Roitt’s Essential Immunology. 2017. 13th ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, pp 295-300.
11. Kearney SM, Gibbons SM. Designing synbiotics for improved human health. Microb Biotechnol 2018; 11: 141-144.
12. Ng SC, Hart AL, Kamm MA, Stagg AJ, Knight SC. Mechanisms of action of probiotics: Recent advances. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009; 15: 300-310.
13. Floch MH, Montrose DC. Use of probiotics in humans: An analysis of the literature. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005; 34: 547-570.
14. Marteau PR, de Vrese M, Cellier CJ, Schrezenmeir J. Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73(2 Suppl):430S-436S.
15. Guarino A, Lo Vecchio A, Canani RB. Probiotics as prevention and treatment for diarrhea. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2009; 25: 18-23.
16. Galdeano CM, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Vinderola G, Bonet ME, Perdigón G. Proposed model: Mechanisms of immunomodulation induced by probiotic bacteria. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007; 14: 485-492.
17. Matsumoto T, Kitano A, Oshitani N, Obata A, Hiki M, Hashimura H, et al. Immunoglobulin-containing cells in the colonic mucosa of rabbits with carrageenan-induced colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 1988; 31: 723-729.
18. Brandtzaeg P, Farstad IN, Johansen FE, Morton HC, Norderhaug IN, Yamanaka T. The B-cell system of human mucosae and exocrine glands. Immunol Rev 1999; 171: 45-87.
19. Leblanc J, Fliss I, Matar C. Induction of a humoral immune response following an Escherichia coli O157 : H7 infection with an immunomodulatory peptidic fraction derived from Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004; 11: 1171-1181.
20. Herías MV, Hessle C, Telemo E, Midtvedt T, Hanson LA, Wold AE. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum colonizing the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. Clin Exp Immunol 1999; 116: 283-290.
21. Winkler P, de Vrese M, Laue Ch, Schrezenmeir J. Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 43: 318-326.
22. Delcenserie V, Martel D, Lamoureux M, Amiot J, Boutin Y, Roy D. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in the intestinal tract. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2008; 10: 37-54.
23. Saavedra JM. Use of probiotics in pediatrics: Rationale, mechanisms of action, and practical aspects. Nutr Clin Pract 2007; 22: 351-365.
24. Galdeano CM, Perdigo G. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei induces activation of the gut mucosal immune system through innate immunity. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2006; 13: 219-226.
25. Dogi CA, Galdeano CM, Perdigón G. Gut immune stimulation by non pathogenic Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria. Comparison with a probiotic strain. Cytokine 2008; 41: 223-231.
26. Hrncir T, Stepankova R, Kozakova H, Hudcovic T, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H. Gut microbiota and lipopolysaccharide content of the diet influence development of regulatory T cells: studies in germ-free mice. BMC Immunol 2008; 9: 65.