Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2018. 10(3):166-170.

Group B Streptococci and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in pregnant women and those with spontaneous abortion at Sanandaj, Iran
Amjad Ahmadi, Fariba Farhadifar, Masoome Rezaii, Farnaz Zandvakili, Fariba Seyedoshohadaei, Mozhdeh Zarei, Sholeh Shahgheibi, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Daem Roshani


Background and Objectives: Group B Streptococcali (GBS) is an important factor in newborn deaths in developed and developing countries. Trichomoniasis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, which is caused by protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis). The present study compares the frequency of GBS and T. vaginalis genital infections in pregnant women, women with spontaneous abortion, as well as its role in spontaneous abortion.

Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 109 women were included with spontaneous abortion with gestational ages between 11-20 weeks and 109 pregnant women with gestational ages between 35-37 weeks in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs and subjected to PCR assays. The independent t-test was used; and for comparing other qualitative variables in each group, the Chi-Square Test was used.

Results: The age of the women ranged from 19-43 years (29.6 ± 5.9) and in the control group the age range was from 19-42 years (27.8 ± 4.87). The rate of prevalence of Group B Streptococcal infection in the control group was 3.6%; and in the patient group there were 7.2% with the rate of prevalence of T. vaginalis in both groups as zero.

Conclusion: The present study showed that there is no relationship between GBS infections (P-value = 0.235) and T. vaginalis.


Group B Streptococci; Spontaneous abortion; Trichomonas vaginalis; PCR

Full Text:



Schuchat A. Epidemiology of group B Streptococcal disease in the United States: shifting paradigms. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998;11:497-513.

Convert M, Martinetti Lucchini G, Dolina M, Piffaretti JC. Comparison of lightcycler PCR and culture for detection of group B Streptococci from vaginal swabs. Clin Microbiol Infect 2005;11:1022-1026.

Murayama SY, Seki C, Sakata H, Sunaoshi K, Nakayama E, Iwata S, et al. Capsular type and antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from patients, ranging from newborns to the elderly, with invasive infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009;53:2650-2653.

Murdoch DM, Reller LB. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Group B Streptococci isolated from patients with invasive disease: 10-year perspectiv. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45:3623-3624.

Martins E, Andreu A, Correia P, Juncosa T, Bosch J, Ramirez M, et al. Group B streptococci causing neonatal infections in Barcelona are a stable clonal population: 18-year surveillance. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:2911-2918.

Seo YS, Srinivasan U, Oh K-Y, Shin J-H, Chae JD, Kim MY, et al. Changing molecular epidemiology of group B streptococcus in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2010;25:817-823.

Riley DE, Roberts M, Takayama T, Krieger JN. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:465-472.

Burstein GR, Zenilman JM. Nongonococcal urethritis—a new paradigm. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28 Suppl 1:S66-73.

Dunne RL, Linda AD, Upcroft P, O'donoghue PJ, Upcroft JA. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Cell Res 2003; 13:239-249.

Seo J-H, Yang H-W, Joo S-Y, Song S-M, Lee Y-R, Ryu J-S, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2014;52:551-555.

Ke D, Ménard C, Picard FJ, Boissinot M, Ouellette M, Roy PH, et al. Development of conventional and real-time PCR assays for the rapid detection of group B Streptococci. Clin Chem 2000;46:324-331.

Wangnapi R, Soso S, Unger H, Sawera C, Ome M, Umbers A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in Papua New Guinea. Sex Transm Infect 2015;91:194-200.

López-Monteon A, Gómez-Figueroa F, Ramos-Poceros G, Guzmán-Gómez D, Ramos-Ligonio A. Codetection of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by PCR in urine samples in a low-risk population attended in a clinic first level in central Veracruz, Mexico. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:1-7.

Van Der Pol B, Williams JA, Orr DP, Batteiger BE, Fortenberry JD. Prevalence, incidence, natural history, and response to treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among adolescent women. J Infect Dis 2005;192:2039-2044.

Bakhtiari R, Dallal MS, Mehrabadi J, Heidarzadeh S, Pourmand M. Evaluation of culture and PCR methods for diagnosis of group B streptococcus carriage in Iranian pregnant women. Iran J Public Health 2012;41:65-70.

Li Y, Wu Q, Zou Y, Pan W, Peng D, Liu X. Relationship between the colonization of Group B Streptococci, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and spontaneous abortion due to early embryonic death. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2010;32:513-515.

Manning SD, Lewis MA, Springman AC, Lehotzky E, Whittam TS, Davies HD. Genotypic diversity and serotype distribution of group B streptococcus isolated from women before and after delivery. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:1829-1837.

Peeling RW. Testing for sexually transmitted infections: a brave new world?. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82: 425-430.

Nguyen TV, Van Khuu N, Thi Le TT, Nguyen AP, Cao V, Tham DC, et al. Sexually transmitted infections and risk factors for gonorrhea and Chlamydia in female sex workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam. Sex Transm Dis 2008;35:935-940.

Schwebke JR, Burgess D. Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004;17:794-803.

Fichorova RN. Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome. J Reprod Immunol 2009; 83:185-189.

Martins ER, Melo-Cristino J, Ramirez M. Evidence for rare capsular switching in Streptococcus agalactiae. J Bacteriol 2010;192:1361-1369.

Karunakaran R, Raja NS, Hafeez A, Puthucheary SD. Group B Streptococcus infection: epidemiology, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of selected isolates in the population beyond infancy (excluding females with genital tract-and pregnancy-related isolates) at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Jpn J Infect Dis 2009;62:192-194.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.