Direct disk testing versus isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urine from urinary tract infection
AbstractBackground and Objectives: Urinary tract infections are common infections that can be caused by many bacterial pathogens. The susceptibility of such pathogens to antimicrobial agents is identified by different methods including disk diffusion test, direct sensitivity testing and determination minimum inhibitory concentration. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria cultured from urine samples and compare the results of direct sensitivity test (DST) against Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity (AST) with respect to reliability, time and cost.Materials and Methods: Midstream urine samples were inoculated on blood and MacConkey agar plates; growth was evaluated after colony counting. We identified isolates based on their cultural and biochemical properties, and Vitek® 2 system.Both DST and AST were performed on Mueller-Hinton agar using 10 antimicrobial agents. Error rate was calculated between the DST and AST as the proportion of comparisons between DST and AST test results. The comparisons represented as "very major error", "major error", or "minor error" and "agreement" (i.e, no error).Results: We tested 373 urine samples, of them 257 (68.9%) were from females and 116 (31.1%) from males. Primary cultivation detected growth (>105 cfu/mL) from 206 (55.23%) samples; Gram-negative isolates were the most common isolates; these included Escherichia coli (111, 51.87%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19, 8.88%), while Staphylococcus aureus (14, 6.54%) was the main Gram-positive isolate. From the 1940 individual comparisons of DST and AST of single (pure) bacterial isolates, 12 comparisons (0.6%) represented very major errors, 9 (0.5%) major errors, 36 (1.8%) minor errors, and 1883 comparisons (97.1%) were in agreement.Conclusion: E. coli was the most common isolate. Cefixime and cefpodoxime were found to be the most ineffective antimicrobial agents, while meropenem and nitrofurantoin were the most effective agents against all isolated urinary pathogens. DST and AST almost give the same results in pure cultures, and direct antimicrobial susceptibility for urine specimens can safely replace standard antimicrobial susceptibility in urinary tract infection.
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