The Differences in systemic humoral immune response among Balb/c mice administered with probiotic, LPS Escherichia coli, and probiotic-LPS E. coli

  • Kurniawan Taufiq Kadafi Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency and Intensive Care, Saiful Anwar General Hospital, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Satrio Wibowo Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saiful Anwar General Hospital, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Keywords: Humoral, Immune, Probiotic, Lipopolysaccharide


Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the systemic humoral immune responses, including IgE, IgA, IgG and IgM levels in Balb/c mice administered a probiotic, LPS derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli), and probiotic-LPS derived from E. coli.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Balb/c mice, 10-12 weeks of age with body weight ranging from 30-40 g were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=8). The treatment regimens were as follows: Group 1, mice did not receive LPS or probiotic (control group); Group 2, mice received only LPS on the first day; Group 3, mice received probiotic for 7 days; Group 4, mice received LPS on the first day, and then continued, with probiotic for 7 days. The mice were observed for 8 days, and then, euthanized the next day (day 9). The serum was collected, and the levels of IgE, IgA, IgG and IgM were measured using ELISA.
Results: The humoral immune response was higher in the presence of a probiotic compared to that in the control; IgE (9.02 ± 0.58 units/ml, p=0.000), IgA (3.26 ± 0.99 units/ml, p=0.316), IgG (7.29 ± 0.24 units/ml, p=0.000), and IgM (4.01 ± 2.98 units/ml, p=0.505). When administered with LPS E. coli along with probiotic, the humoral immune response was the highest; IgE (10.68 ± 1.63 units/ml, p=0.000), IgA (8.34 ± 1.47 units/ml, p=0.000), IgG (9.96 ± 0.98 units/ml, p=0.000), and IgM (4.31 ± 1.05 units/ml, p=0.319) compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Probiotic-LPS derived from E. coli treatment induced a higher humoral immune response (highest IgE, IgA, IgG and IgM levels) compared to treatment with probiotic only.


1. Floch MH, Walker WA, Guandalini S, Hibberd P, Gorbach S, Surawicz C, et al. Recommendations for probiotic use. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008;42 Suppl 2:S104-108.
2. Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, McCormick JK. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003;16:658-672.
3. Lomax AR, Calder PC. Probiotics, immune function, infection, and inflammation: a review of the evidence from studies conducted in humans. Curr Pharm Des 2009;15:1428-1518.
4. Saavedra JM. Use of probiotics in pediatrics: rationale, mechanisms of action, and practical aspects. Nutr Clin Pract 2007;22:351-365.
5. Alexander C, Rietschel E. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity. J Endotoxin Res 2001;7:167-202.
6. Courtois F, Seidman EG, Delvin E, Asselin C, Bernotti S, Ledoux M, et al. Membrane peroxidation by lipopolysaccharide and iron-ascorbate adversely affects Caco-2 cell function: beneficial role of butyric acid. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:744-750.
7. Villar J, Péréz-Méndéz L, Espinosa E, Flores C, Blanco J, Muriel A, et al. Serum lipopolysaccharide binding protein levels predict severity of lung injury and mortality in patients with severe sepsis. PLoS One 2009;4(8):e6818.
8. Pohjavouri E, Vijanen M, Korpela R, Kuitunen M, Tittanen M, Vaarala O, et al. Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow’s milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:131-136.
9. Thomas DJ, Husmann RJ, Villamar M, Winship TR, Buck RH, Zuckerman FA. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 attenuates allergy development in a pig model. PLoS One 2011;6(2):e16577.
10. Frossard CP, Steidler L, Eigenmann PA. Oral administration of an IL-10-secreting Lactobacillus lactis strain prevents food-induced IgE sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:952-959.
11. Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, Lee SI, Han YS, Choi YO, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophil) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010; 21(2 Pt 2):e386-93.
12. Perdigón G, Fuller R, Raya R. Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 2001;2:27-42.
13. Kirjavainen PV, El-Nezami HS, Salminen SJ, Ahokas JT, Wright PF. The effect of orally administered viable probiotic and dairy lactobacilli on mouse lymphocyte proliferation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1999;26:131-135.
14. Ishida-Fujii K, Sato R, Goto S, Yang X, Kuboki H, Hirano S, et al. Prevention of pathogenic E. coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rat by oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei l-5. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:866-873.
15. LeBlanc J, Fliss I, Matar C. Induction of humoral immune response following an Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection with an immunomodulatory peptidic fraction derived from Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004;11:1171-1181.
16. Herias MV, Hessle C, Telemo E, Midtvedt T, Hanson LA, Wold AE. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum colonizing the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. Clin Exp Immunol 1999;116:283-290.
17. Ko EJ, Goh JS, Lee BJ, Choi SH, Kim PH. Bifidobacterium bifidum exhibits a lipopolysaccharide-like mitogenic activity for murine B lymphocytes. J Dairy Sci 1999;82:1869-1876.
How to Cite
Kadafi K, Wibowo S. The Differences in systemic humoral immune response among Balb/c mice administered with probiotic, LPS Escherichia coli, and probiotic-LPS E. coli. Iran J Microbiol. 11(4):294-299.
Original Article(s)