Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2009. 1(3):3-6.

Avian Influenza (H9N2) among poultry workers in Iran
E Alizadeh, MT Kheiri, R Bashar, M Tabatabaeian, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, V Mazaheri

Abstract


Background and objectives: A number of different subtypes of avian influenza (AI) viruses have emerged in humans includingH5N1, H7N2, H7N7 and H9N2. These influenza viruses are excreted in the infected birds and in their respiratory secretions.The aim of this study was to investigate seropositivity against H9N2 and H7N7 viruses among poultry and slaughterhouse workers with occupational risk of exposure to poultry in Tehran province.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed using two types of HI assay among 127 poultry and slaughter-house workers and 25 controls with the regular consumer related exposure to poultry against H9N2 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.1.
Results: There was no evidence of previous H7N7 infection among subjects. Both poultry workers had elevated antibodies against H9N2 Influenza viruses compared to controls. Slaughter-house workers who self-reported eviscerating poultry with their bare hands had markedly increased evidence of previous H9N2 infection (15.7%) compared to controls (0%)(OR=18.241, 95% CI ([6.802-48.914]).
Conclusions: Our results suggest poultry-to-human transmission of avian influenza A H9N2 can occur in poultry workers.Eviscerating section workers, in contrast to others had the highest risk of H9N2 infection. It is emphasized that eviscerating sections of poultry work is the most contaminated part of poultry industry that could increase the likelihood of poultry-tohuman transmission.


Keywords


Avian influenza virus; H9N2; H7N; HI assay; Poultry workers; Slaughter-house workers; Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexander DJ. An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza. Vaccine. 2006; 6691: 1-8.

Nili H, Assasi K. Natural cases and an experimental study of H9N2 avian influenza in commercial broiler chickens of Iran. Avian Path 2002; 31: 247-252.

Meijer A, Bosman A, Kamp E, Wilbrink B, Beest Holle M, Koopmans M. Measurements of antibodies to avian influenza virus A (H7N7) in humans by hemagglutination inhibition test. J Virol Methods 2006; 132: 113-120.

Eick A, Hu-Primmer J, Rowe T, Masseoud F, Fukuda K, Lim W, et al. Seroprevalence of antibody to influenza A H9N2 virus in poultry workers in Hong Kong. Options for the control of influenza IV, abstract W81-4p.68.

Cheng X, Liu J, Sfan F. Virological and serological surveys for H9N2 subtype of influenza A virus in chickens and men in Shenzhen city. Chin J Exp Clin Virol 2002;16: 319-21.

Uyeki TM, Chong YH, Katz JM, Lim W, Ho YY, Wang SS, et al. Lack of evidence for human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses in Hong Kong, China.1999. Emerg Infect Dis 2000; 8: 154-9.

Guo Y, Li J, Cheng X. Discovery of men infected by avian influenza A (H9N2) virus. Chin J Exp Clin Virol 1999; 13: 105-8.

World Health organization (WHO): Manual on Animal Influenza Diagnosis and surveillance 2002. www.WHO/ CsR/NCS/2002.5.

Hayden F, Croisier A. Transmission of avian influenza viruses to and between humans. J Infect Dis 2005; 192:1311-4.

Peiris M, Yam WC, Chan KH, Ghose P, Shortridge Kf, Influenza A (H9N2): aspects of laboratory diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 3426-3427.

Oslen JS, Laosiritaworn Y, Pattanasin S, Prapasiri P, Dowell S. Poultry- handling practices during avian influenza out break, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Disease. 2005; 11: 1601-1603.

Barbour EK, Sagherian VK, Sagherian NK, Dankar Sk, Jaber LS. Avian influenza out break in poultry in Lebanon and transmission to neighboring farmers and swine. Vet Ital 2006; 42:77-85.

Capuano AW, Dawson JD, Gray GC. Maximizing power in seroepidemiological studies through use of the proportional Odds Model. Influenza and other Respire Viruses 2007; 1(3): 87-93.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.