Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in unpasteurized dairy products using nested PCR assay

  • Fargol Abdali Nutrition Research Center, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Saeid Hosseinzadeh Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
  • Enayat Berizi Nutrition Research Center, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Siamak Shams Department of Environmental Health Ward, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Keywords: Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, Nested-PCR, Phylogenic analysis

Abstract

Background and objectives: Q fever is a worldwide disease which is common between human and livestock. This disease is created by an obligate intracellular Rickettsia called Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii). Cattle, goats and sheep are among the main reservoirs of the disease in humans. The most common routs of transmitting the infection to humans are inhalation of contaminated aerosols and drinking milk and non-pasteurized dairy products. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii in non-pasteurized dairy products in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this study (from summer 2016 to winter 2016), 238 non-pasteurized dairy products, (48 raw milk, 48 yogurt, 46 cheeses, 48 dough and 48 ice cream samples) were collected from the retail market and analyzed using a nested PCR assay. Results: This study showed that 20 samples (8.4%) of 238 non-pasteurized dairy products were reported positive for C. burnetii (13 of 48 (27.08%) raw milk, 3 of 48 (6.25%) yogurt, 2 of 46 (4.35%) cheese, 2 of 48 (4.16%) dough and 0 of 48 ice cream samples). Conclusions: The present study suggests that non-pasteurized dairy as main sources of C. burnetii in Shiraz, Southern Iran; thus, the consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products is a valuable method to prevent the disease in human.

References

Angelakis E, Raoult D. Q fever. Vet Microbiol 2010; 140 (3): 297-309.

Maurin M, Raoult Df. Q fever. Clinic Microbiol Rev 1999; 12 (4): 518-553.

Zabihi R, Majidzade K, Mohseni A, Soleimani M. Review on the laboratory diagnosis of Q-Fever. J Army Univ Med Sci 2014; 11 (4): 383-388.

Berri M, Arricau-Bouvery N, Rodolakis A. PCR-based detection of Coxiella burnetii from clinical samples. PCR Detect Microbial Pathogen 2003: 153-161.

Zhang G, Nguyen SV, To H, Ogawa M, Hotta A, Yamaguchi T, et al. Clinical evaluation of a new PCR assay for detection of Coxiella burnetii in human serum samples. J Clinic Microbiol 1998; 36 (1): 77-80.

Çekani M, Papa A, Kota M, Velo E, Berxholi K. Report of a serological study of Coxiella burnetii in domestic animals in Albania. The Vet J 2008; 175 (2): 276-278.

Khalili M, Shahabi-nejad N, Aflatoonian MR. Q fever a forgotten disease in Iran. J Kerman Univers Med Sci 2015; 17 (1) 93-97.

Cerf O, Condron R. Coxiella burnetii and milk pasteurization: an early application of the precautionary principle? Epid & Infect 2006; 134 (5): 946-951.

Fretz R, Schaeren W, Tanner M, Baumgartner A. Screening of various foodstuffs for occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in Switzerland. Int J Food Microbiol 2007; 116 (3): 414-418.

Hirai A, Kaneko S, Nakama A, Ishizaki N, Odagiri M, Kai A, et al. Investigation of Coxiella burnetii contamination in commercial milk and PCR method for the detection of C. burnetii in egg. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi J of the Food Hyg Society Japan 2005; 46 (3): 86-92.

Rahimi E, Doosti A, Ameri M, Kabiri E, Sharifian B. Detection of Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. Zoon Pub Health 2010; 57 (7‐8): 38-41.

Guatteo R, Beaudeau F, Berri M, Rodolakis A, Joly A, Seegers H. Shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cows: implications for detection and control. Vet Res 2006; 37 (6): 827-833.

Öngör H, Cetinkaya B, Karahan M, Açik MN, Bulut H, Muz A. Detection of Coxiella burnetii by immunomagnetic separation-PCR in the milk of sheep in Turkey. Vet Rec 2004; 154 (18): 570-572.

Loftis AD, Priestley RA, Massung RF. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in commercially available raw milk from the United States. Foodborne Pathogen Dis 2010; 7 (12): 1453-1456.

Muskens J, Van Engelen E, Van Maanen C, Bartels C, Lam T. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in Dutch dairy herds based on testing bulk tank milk and individual samples by PCR and ELISA. Vet Rec 2011; 168 (3): 79.

Jamshidi A, Razmyar J, Borji S. Identification of Coxiella burnetii by touch-down PCR assay in unpasteurized milk and dairy products in North-East of Iran. Iran J Vet Med 2014; 8 (1): 15-19.

Kazemi Kheirabadi E, Behzadnia A, Rahimi E. Coxiella burnetii in traditional raw milk, cheese and ice cream in Iran. The 7th National Biotechnology Congress of IR Iran; Tehran 2011.

Kim SG, Kim EH, Lafferty CJ, Dubovi E. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11 (4): 619.

Rodolakis A, Berri M, Hechard C, Caudron C, Souriau A, Bodier C, et al. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds. J Dairy Sci 2007; 90 (12): 5352-5360.

Rahimi E, Torki BZ, Doosti A. An assay to determine the seasonal prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cow milk using nested PCR. J Microbial World 2010; 3 (1): 56-92.

Suman P, Uddin ASS, Md-Tariqul I, Nayan B, Jens A. Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in humans and animals: a general overview. Annals Vet Animal Sci 2016; 3 (1): 1-19.

Published
2018-10-06
How to Cite
1.
Abdali F, Hosseinzadeh S, Berizi E, Shams S. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in unpasteurized dairy products using nested PCR assay. IJM. 10(4):220-6.
Section
Original Article(s)