Detection of JC Polyomavirus tumor antigen in gastric carcinoma: a report from Iran
AbstractBackground and Objectives: Factors contributing to development of gastric cancer are still under investigation. The JC Virus (JCV), as an oncogenic virus, has been indicated to play a possible role in gastric carcinogenesis. Theoretically, tumor antigen (T-Ag), the viral transforming protein, is capable of binding and inactivating tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, there by promoting cancer development although such a role in gastric cancer is still controversial and additional data is needed to reach a definite conclusion. The prevalence of the virus varies in different geographic regions, therefore, we aimed to investigate JCV presence in cancerous gastric tissues of Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one paired samples were included in this study (total of 62 samples). T-Ag sequences were investigated using real-time PCR in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from the tumor site and relevant adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT). In positive samples, JCV copy number (viral load) was also measured using real-time PCR. To evaluate T-Ag protein expression, immunohistochemistry examination was performed using an anti-T-Ag specific antibody. Results: JCV sequences were detected in 17 out of 31 gastric cancer tissue samples (54.84%) and in 10 out of 31 of the non-cancerous adjacent gastric mucosa (32.25%) (Odds ratio of 2.4). Viral load in tumoral and adjacent tissue samples was not statistically different (p=0.88). Immunohistochemical study confirmed presence of JC T-Ag in the nuclear compartment. Conclusion: We showed the presence of the JC virus in gastric carcinoma tissue samples in our geographic region. This finding provides supportive data for a possible contribution of JCV in gastric cell transformation to malignancy. However, we highly recommend additional investigations to further explore JC virus and gastric cancer in order to reach a conclusion.
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