Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2016. 8(5):316-320.

Evidence of human coroanvirus (229E), in patients with respiratory infection, Iran, 2015: the first report
Ali Madhi, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Mohamad Soleimani


Background and Objectives: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are one of the main causes of upper respiratory tract infections in humans. While more often responsible for mild illness, they have been associated with illnesses that require hospitalization.

Materials and Methods: 270 Samples from patients hospitalized with the respiratory infection during the autumn season of 2015 were evaluated for the presence of four HCoVs (OC43, 229E, HUK1, and NL63) using an optimized SYBR green RT-PCR assay.

Results: Fifteen HCoV-229E positive samples were identified (5.5 % positive). 85% of positive samples were male with the range of age between 12- 75 years old.

Conclusion: It is the first comprehensive study on determination of the role of human coronaviruses in respiratory infections in Iran. Our data provide a novel insight into the epidemiology of HCoVs in Iran. Further studies are needed and should include the isolation and molecular characterization of HCoVs in Iran.

Keywords: Human Coronavirus, 229E, Iran, OC43, NL63 , HUK-1


Human Coronavirus; 229E; Iran; OC43; NL63; HUK-1

Full Text:



Gaunt E, Hardie A, Claas E, Simmonds P, Templeton K. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48(8):2940-7.

van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, Vermeulen-Oost W, Berkhout RJ, Wolthers KC, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med 2004;10(4):368-73.

Woo PC, Lau SK, Yip CC, Huang Y, Yuen K-Y. More and more coronaviruses: human coronavirus HKU1. Viruses 2009;1(1):57-71.

Esper F, Shapiro ED, Weibel C, Ferguson D, Landry ML, Kahn JS. Association between a novel hu- man coronavirus and Kawasaki disease. J Infect Dis 2005;191(4):499-502.

Dare RK, Fry AM, Chittaganpitch M, Sawanpanyalert P, Olsen SJ, Erdman DD. Human coronavirus infec- tions in rural Thailand: a comprehensive study using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reac- tion assays. J Infect Dis 2007;196(9):1321-8.

Moës E, Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Zlateva K, Li S, Maes P, et al. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hos- pitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. BMC Infect Dis 2005 Feb;1;5:6.

Coiras M, Aguilar J, Garcia M, Casas I, Pérez-Breña P. Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex re- verse transcription nested-PCR assays. J Med Virol 2004;72(3):484-95.

Vabret A, Mouthon F, Mourez T, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, Freymuth F. Direct diagnosis of human respiratory coronaviruses 229E and OC43 by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 2001;97(1):59-66.

Lieberman D, Lieberman D, Shimoni A, Keren-Naus A, Steinberg R, Shemer-Avni Y. Identification of respi- ratory viruses in adults: nasopharyngeal versus oropha-ryngeal sampling. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47(11):3439-43.

Najafi H, Langeroudi A, Hashemzadeh M, Karimi V, Madadgar O, Ghafouri S, et al. Molecular character- ization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chicken farms in Iran, 2014-2015. Arch Virol 2016 Jan;161(1):53-62.

Sultani M, Azad TM, Eshragian M, Shadab A, Naseri M, Eilami O, et al. Multiplex SYBR green real-Time PCR assay for detection of respiratory viruses. Jundis- hapur J Microbiol 2015 Aug 1;8(8):e19041.

Farsani SMJ, Dijkman R, Jebbink MF, Goossens H, Ieven M, Deijs M, et al. The first complete genome sequences of clinical isolates of human coronavirus 229E. Virus genes 2012;45(3):433-9.

van Elden LJ, van Alphen F, Hendriksen KA, Hoepel- man AI, van Kraaij MG, Oosterheert J-J, et al. Frequent detection of human coronaviruses in clinical specimens from patients with respiratory tract infection by use of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 2004;189(4):652-7.

Vabret A, Dina J, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, Corbet S, Freymuth F. Detection of the new human coro- navirus HKU1: a report of 6 cases. Clin Infec Dis 2006;42(5):634-9.

Sultani M, Mokhtari-Azad T, Yavarian J. Detection of human coronavirus NL63 in a 28 Days old newborn in Iran. 2. [Original article]. 2013;7(3):27-8.

Yavarian J, Rezaei F, Shadab A, Soroush M, Gooya MM, Azad TM. Cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections in Iran, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 2015;21:362-364.

Alborzi A, Aelami MH, Ziyaeyan M, Jamalidoust M, Moeini M, Pourabbas B, et al. Viral etiology of acute

respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims,2006. J Travel Med 2009;16:239-242.

Moattari A, Aleyasin S, Arabpour M, Sadeghi S.Prevalence of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) in children with wheezing in Shiraz-Iran. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Dec;9(4):250-254.

Arabpour M, Samarbafzadeh A, Makvandi M, Sham- sizadeh A, Percivalle E, Englud J, et al. The highest prevalence of human metapneumovirus in Ahwaz chil- dren accompanied by acute respiratory infections. In- dian J Med Microbiol 2008;26:123.

Naghipour M, Cuevas LE, Bakhshinejad T, Dove W, Hart CA. Human bocavirus in Iranian children with acute respiratory infections. J Med Virol 2007;79:539-543.

Milani M. Respiratory syncytial virus infection among young children with acute respiratory infection. Acta Med Iran 2003;41(4):269-72.

Farshad N, Saffar M, Khalilian A, Saffar H. Respirato- ry viruses in hospitalized children with acute lower re- spiratory tract infections, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Indian Pediatr 2008;45(7):590.

Faghihloo E, Rezaie F, Salimi V, Naseri M, Mamishi S, Mahmoodi M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus in Iran. Acta Virol 2011;55(1):81-83.

Lu R, Yu X, Wang W, Duan X, Zhang L, Zhou W, et al. Characterization of human coronavirus etiol- ogy in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection by real-time RT-PCR assays. PloS one 2012;7(6):e38638.

Gunson R, Collins T, Carman W. Real-time RT-PCR detection of 12 respiratory viral infections in four tri- plex reactions. J Clin Virol 2005;33(4):341-4


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.